Start referring new members and you can earn thousands per month!! It's really true...
Enter this link and registered for free: http://www.surfjunky.com/?r=Redzwan
Level 1 Referrals - 5%
Level 2 Referrals - 3%
Level 3 Referrals - 1%
Our highest paid members are also our members with the most referrals. Doesn't this tell you something? Start referring and start letting others earn money for you! Money will be send to your address by 15 th of every month by check...
please send me some info about 12dp because here many of our fan in 12dp are waiting
here i list some auto surf that i intend to joint ..what is your opinion??
Open This Site Now Before It Disappears!
One of the hottest income earners on the web today is called Autosurfing, and takes very little time. How does it work? First you find a good, reliable autosurf site and sign up for free. Most will fund their accout with a free $10. Login, then click on the Surf button on that site and various web pages will be automatically rotated in front of you, usually 15-20 seconds each. If you see something that interests you, you can open up that page (or it will disappear in 20 seconds). When you're done, you continue autosurfing. You are usually limited to the pages you can autosurf, and are paid according to your membership level. Autosurf sites pay between 1% and 12% DAILY on your membership level balance for anywhere between 15 minutes and an hour of surfing! Quick example. One site, 12DailyPro, pays 12% per day. You can surf for 12 days on that session. So, if you had a $1,000 membership level, you would earn $1,440. This is an example only since their upgrade units are actually $6/unit, but you get the idea.
They can afford this kind of payoff since businesses will pay to include their website in the rotation and the site admins usually invest the members money in higher rate of return investments. IF the site admins are experienced in investing, this turns into a win-win situation for everyone. For businesses to make money on the web, it's all about traffic, traffic, traffic!! There are THOUSANDS of autosurfers out there.
Like anything else, there are reliable, legitimate surf sites out there with good reputations and those who are merely scam artists that will stay up from 1 or 2 weeks to 3 or 4 months (or less) then take your money and run. If you decide to give this a try, DO YOUR HOMEWORK FIRST before putting in one dime. There are many good autosurf information sites out there to keep us apprised of what's good and what isn't. (See the Autosurf Monitor page). It's analagous to E-Bay in that the members "watch out" for each other to keep the "wolves" at bay.
Below are some links to the autosurf sites I'm active in right now. I'm starting with $15,000 "seed" money. You don't have to do that of course. You can actually start with the free $10 and simply grow your earnings over time by upgrading your membership level with your earnings. I'll spread this over about 10 autosurf sites which I believe are the most reliable, with the best return on investment. If you are new to autosurfing please check
PLEASE CLEAR YOUR COOKIES BEFORE CLICKING ON THESE LINKS (prevents affiliate hijacking)
TRAFFIC MELTDOWN Traffic Meltdown is a good reliable site. They pay 5% for 25 Days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.00%. I've been with this site since
MYSTERY HITS Mystery Hits is a top notch site. They pay 5% for 30 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.67%. I've been with this site since
SURFERS DREAM Surfers Dream is now my primary "long term" site. Currently, you can upgrade with your earnings daily. They pay 2% for 180 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.44%. This site is run by the same admin as Traffic Meltdown so I trust it completely. I haven't requested cashout yet since I'm using all my earnings to increase my membership level to the maximum allowed. And yes, they take UniClear!!
DAILY CACHE Daily Cache has the same terms as Surfers Dream and is my seconde primary "long term" site (diversity). Currently, you can upgrade with your earnings daily. They pay 2% for 180 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.44%. This site is run by the same admin as Mystery Hits so I trust it completely. I haven't requested cashout yet since I'm using all my earnings to increase my membership level to the maximum allowed. And yes, they take UniClear!!
PAY2SURFPRO Pay2SurfPro is a fairly new site owned by the same admin as Mystery Hits. They pay 5% for 25 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.00% I've only been with this site since 18 November and haven't requested cashout yet. However, I trust the admin completely and know I'll get paid immediately when I do request payout. Any yes, they take UniClear!!
PAY2SURF NEW!! By the admin who runs Mystery Hits and Pay2SurfPro. This has the same plan as Surfers Dream (excellent longer term). Uses a different rotator that is nice and STABLE!!
KNIGHT SURFERS This is a great site with a great admin if you don't mind paying Stormpay or E-Gold fees. They pay 4% for 45 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.78%. They pay twice a month. I've been paid three times now for a total of $730.
RECOMMENDED - but they don't take UniClear
ALIEN TRUST This one looks like the next 12DailyPro. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED! They don't take UniClear (yet) but I joined anyway. They are stable and have an actual daily ROI of 2.86%. Nothing but good news in all the forums and Surf Monitor sites. They only take Stormpay right now, which isn't TOO bad since Stormpay got sensible and reduced their fees.
TOTAL RUNE NEW!! Recommended by the admin for Traffic Meltdown, I just joined. He's never steered me wrong yet. Actual daily ROI is 3.33%, so it's just a bit risky. If their admin know how to invest the members money, this could turn out to be a great money maker. Unfortunately, they only take Stormpay, but I'll work on convincing their admin to add UniClear.
EPROFITSURF EProfitSurf is another LONG term surf site. They pay 2% for 730 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.86%. The one thing I really don't like about this site is that you get paid on your cash balance at the end of the month (if over $20), but NOT until the 15th of the next month. However, they DO pay on time and they genuinly have the members wellfare at the top of their list.
STUDIO TRAFFIC These folks set the standard and have been around for several years. They're still growing. They pay 1% for 365 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 1.78%. They also only pay at the end of the month, and it takes forever to get your money from Studiopay back into your bank.
12DAILYPRO This has been a fantastic site. They pay 12% for 12 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 3.67%. I've been paid twice for a total of $3628. The downside is they have 7 days to pay, and each time I got paid on the 7th day. Thats 7 days my money was tied up and not working for me. Add to that another 5 days to get your money back out of Stormpay, and its now 12 days my money wasn't working for me. I'll stay with this site for web page exposure and some good earnings even with the high (lowered) Stormpay fees, but I'm moving my serious money to other sites.
50CENT2SURF This has been a reliable site so far but it takes forever to get paid. They pay 15% for 10 days. The actual Daily Return on Investment is 5.00%. This is the highest Daily ROI I've seen that actually pays, but it seems there's always some kind of problem with E-Gold being slow, or other things that go wrong. Same symptoms as a scam site, but I seriously believe they are honest. They just have a lot of bad luck. They only do mass pay which I personally believe is the heart of their problems. I hate to give this one up, but will move my money to the less stressful, UniClear sites.
If you don't do anything else, get a UniClear account and join Surfers Dream, Mystery Hits, Traffic Meltdown, Pay2surfpro,Pay2surf, Daily Cache and Knight Surfers. You won't regret it!!
Tara's steps to earning a living surfing online
I am your ordinary stay at home Mom of 3 kids, two of which are very young, 3 yrs and 2 yrs old, I am far from a guru, and found the internet to be a battlefield when it came to earning a cent online. Until I finally took a chance on the "Surf for Cash" programs.
I am going to explain to you how to earn a living through surfing online, in step-by-step format with all references included to make your venture as easy as possible. I will give you everything you need to get set up, there are no monthly subscription fees, hidden charges or set up fees, in what I am offering, only 100% of my help. What I want from you is your feedback, if anything in this blog doesn't fit, or if I have missed a step and following the steps, doesn't make set up easy, please add your comments, so I can update this information. I will update everything on a regular basis and keep you posted on what's new and paying, so keep an eye out.
You can contact me at:- firstname.lastname@example.org and I will get back to you within 12hrs.
Ok are we ready to get started? Go to step 1 to begin
Before Joining any online Surfing Programs you need to set up online Processors:-
Warning:- With any online business there is a Risk, everything that I recommend to you, I have been paid by, the internet changes at great speed so there are no 100% guarantees.
To earn a decent income through "surfing", you will need to upgrade in the programs, each program pays you a certain percentage of your upgrade per day for "surfing" the required number of sites, they all differ in upgrade amounts and number of pages to be surfed. If you miss a day "surfing", you lose the percentage rate for that day.
Lets Get Started follow my lead and you will be up, running and Earning by the end of this blog!
Is my favourite processor, due to it's low fees. It is accepted in 99% of the surfing programs. Click the banner to create your free account. I know the sign up page looks complicated, but it really isn't and for the amount you will save in fees it is 100% worth it.
You cannot fund your e-gold account with a credit card, don't worry, what I will show you is easy, ICE GOLD is an exchange company which is very simple to use and very fast, with great admin. There is no creating of an account you just open the page and follow the instructions set out for you below. Again I have used a couple of similar currency exchangers and when I came across Ice gold there was no going back, their fees are 2%, they have a full set of fees and calculations at their site under the " fees explained section". They are available in 85 countries.
Steps for funding.
1. Open the Ice gold site from the link above
2. Click on buy e-currency
3. Enter your e-gold account number
4. Enter the amount you wish to exchange either in your own currency if it is listed or in US dollars.
5. Make sure the you select international or EU wire, unless you live in Estonia
6. Enter your contact information
7. Click Preview
8. Check all the details you have entered are correct
9. Click continue
10. Print out the receipt
You have 2 options:-
1. You can take the print out to the bank, who will charge you a set fee, here in Aus with my bank I got charged $28 for the wire.
2. Complete the transfer using international online banking, making sure you enter all the details from the print out.
NB:- When I used my own currency the funds were transferred into my e-gold account within 5 hrs. When I used US dollars it took 9hrs, if your currency isn't listed you will have to choose US dollars.
To access funds in e-gold
click the the logo and look for the "join now" button and enter all your details to create your free account. WARNING. If you do not click the "Join Now!" button and later decide to open an account you will not receive the $5 introductory credit.
For every person you introduce who opens and funds their own account, you will receive $5 which is paid the same day their account is activated (funded). So if you introduced 100 people, you would receive $500.
Their fees are amazing and customer support is of the highest level. You can either withdraw funds to your bank account or buy their debit card for $10 which is available World Wide, you can also use it at Any atm with the " cirrus or maestro logo"
For me to list all the advantages here would take forever, so check it out and sign up. This is the simplest, fastest and cheapest way to access your funds in e-gold.
Other online processors:-
Below are two more processors that are accepted online which I use when there is no option for e-gold. Both the processors can be funded through your credit card, these are very easy to set up, always remember that you will have the fees of the processor along with the fees of your visa company, so look at the full picture.
Click the banner to create your Stormpay accout, with a Stormpay account you will need a paid email address, gmail,yahoo and other web based free email accounts are not acceptable. They will not let you create an account using these types of email addresses.
Thats it, You are now set up with your processors, Now lets Begin!
You will need a tabbed browser,
There are quite a few available free on the net, for security I use firefox 100% for surfing and as my default browser, this is also free, they do accept a donation if you are thrilled to bits with their software. If you don't know what a tabbed browser is just keep reading, I will take you through it, so stay with me.
1. Go Here and click where it says "get firefox now", download it to your desktop.
2. Once downloaded, click on the icon loaded on your desktop and install firefox.
3. Open the browser, we will install a couple of extensions
4. Go Here install the tabbed preferences by Bradley Chapman, this will allow you to middle click on a page or link to open in a new tab. Full descriptions are at the site.
5. Go Here install "No Script", this is extra security in firefox.
TAKE NOTE:- Once "No Script" is installed it will Block All Java, you have to change the settings to allow java to be enabled for trusted sites:-
When you open a site, eg one of your surfing sites, you will see a red circle at the bottom left hand side of your screen, just above the tool bar it says:- " java script currently forbidden", if it is a page you are going to visit frequently then:-
LEFT CLICK THE RED CIRCLE and select ALLOW (name of the page you want to allow)
If it is just a page you wish to view and contains java you
LEFT CLICK THE RED CIRCLE and select temporarily allow (whatever the name is) and java will be enabled for that viewing only.
6. Go Here install "Ad Block", this stops 99% of pop ups
7. Need This install "Spoof Stick", look for "Download Spoofstick v1.05 for Mozilla Firefox", click the "download now". This tool makes it easier to spot a spoofed website, by displaying the most relevant domain information. It is not a comprehensive solution, but it is a good start. Read all the terms and conditions.
8. fire fox has its own password saver and you can set your own master password to protect your passwords by going into tools>options>saved passwords>master password.
9. If you prefer Roboform for saving your passwords you can go here and look for "firefox, Mozilla and Netscape", follow the insructions for firefox.
10. Fasterfox Loads webpages at great speed. Makes surfing so much FASTER!!
Toolbars completely your choice:-
1. Google for firefox enables quick access to google, gmail also has a form filler installed.
2. Yahoo for firefox again enables quick access to yahoo mail, and other features like:-" anti spy", etc.
For all the extensions to be loaded into your browser you will need to close firefox and restart your computer. When you re-open firefox browser all the extensions will be visible except Spoofstick.
1. Go to View at the top of the browser
2. Click toolbars
3. Click Customize
A grey popup will appear, spoofstick will be in here you can drag and drop it to your toolbar along with any other icons of your choice.
Ok your browser is now set up so LETS GO FOR IT!!
Tabbed browsing enables you to open multiple tabs, when you click on each tab in your browser a different page will open.
For more information read a full description at tabbed browsing
There is a huge amount of support offered at fire fox central, along with detailed descriptions and options for making your browsing experience easy to understand.
To access this information inside fire fox left click bookmarks>select firefox and mozilla links then from the dropdown select fire fox central.
Double click on the firefox icon
Work with loading 5-7 tabs into the browser for starters
1a. Fire fox will open with its start page, click the end of the url, the whole url should be highlighted, click delete
1. Copy and paste the first link into your browser, then left click file>New Tab
2. Copy and paste the second link into your browser, again the page will load, then left click file>New Tab
3. Do this till all the urls are loaded in firefox browser, you will notice there will be 5-7 tabs loaded in the browser, a registration page will be open, you can open each page by clicking on the tab at the top.
4. Enter your personal details in each choose a user name and password for each, after you have entered these firefox will ask you if you want it to save your password information, click “YES”
This saves time when you have to log into your programs.
Most of the programs you can join free, then Upgrade when you are happy with the way they surf etc, With "12 daily pro", you get 7 days only in which to upgrade. "12 daily is my main earner"
All the sites listed on this page have not only paid me on time every time, they also keep you updated regularly, especially if there are any problems ahead. All the site owners below are rated very highly in my Opinion
Pays 12% for surfing 12 sites for 12 days, payouts ontime when your upgrade expires."Amazing!!" This program has paid me 15 times already and would take up the full page to list all the dates. Don't Miss out on making money with this ONE! Just Keeps Paying!! Always read their updates in your account, as they keep you informed of attacks and need to know issues.
There are 3 different types of membership with this one, Free, Upgraded and Elite
Pays 1.5% for 90 days. I have had to move this one to the top of my list due to the fact that Philip the owner is absolutely amazing, all the admins are good at responding to problems usually within a 24 - 48 hr time period, some longer. I emailed Philip with a couple of questions and 5 mins later he had all my questions answered, REALLY IMPRESSED. It is the Admin that makes the Program.
2. Viva surf
Payday is on the 20th of every month.
Pays 3% for surfing 40 sites for 70 days, payouts are always a week early. Unreal! Paid Me $88.00 1/10/05, $122.00 on 20/11/05.
Not accepting New members at the moment, will be in January.
Hops another reliable and honest surf site ran into problems due to ill health they transferred all their members to DadnDaves so nobody would lose out. The transfer was very smooth.
Pays 1% of your member level for surfing 80 sites upgrades last for 365 days, cashout button is open midnight the last day of each month for 7 days, David runs his own newsletter that keeps you updated on surfsites and scams. Amazing Admin!! paid me $60.00 on 4/11/05.
Pays 1% of your member level for surfing 50 sites. Get this:- "UPGRADES" NEVER Expire! Weekly payouts for account balances of $10 or more! Paid me $15.00 on 15/10/05, paid again $18.00 on 22/10/05, paid again $16.15 on 10/11/05, again $14.10 on 1/12/05.
New Kid on the block
Pays 12% of your member level for surfing 12 sites for 12 days, payout at the end of upgrade. Paid me $72.00 on 19th December, 1 day after upgrade expired. Is this the next 12 daily? Smooth surfing, great admin.
Pays 3% of your member level for surfing 10 sites for 60 days, paid me $14.00 on 31/10/05, upgraded with earnings. Paid $99.75 on 16/12/05.
Free $4 + 1000 credits To join.
Earn 3% daily of your member level for surfing 50 sitesfor 50 days. Referal Commisssion:10%. I Received my first payment $64.00 on 1/12/05
8. Butterfly Surf
Pays 1% of your member level for surfing 25 sites for 200 days, become a vip member and you earn 2%, paid me $58.00 on 14/12/05.
9. Eprofit Surf
Pays 2% of your member level for surfing 50 pages for 2 full yrs, paid me $25.20 on 15/12/05
10. all seasons surf
You have to request cashout, also you have to be upgraded to cashout.
Pays 5% of your member level for surfing 30 sites for 24 days, paid me $42.00 on 31/10/05
Sites Not Accepting New Members at the moment
Not accepting new members at the moment
Pays 15% of your member level for surfing 15 sites for 10 days, payouts on the 1st & 15th of every month. Paid Me $75.00 on 15/10/05, again $45.00 on 2/11/05, again $165.00 on 15/11/05.
2. Sunny Money
Not accepting new members at the moment.
Pays 3% of your member level for surfing 50 sites for 50 days, 3% referral comissions. Smooth surfing. Cashout $20. I Received my first payment $57.00 on 1/12/05
Not accepting new members at the moment.
Both sites sunny money and enjoy2surf are owned by sunny Graham
Pays 3% of your member level for surfing 50 sites for 50 days, 3% referral comissions. Smooth surfing. Cashout $20. I Received my first payment $68.00 on 2/12/05
Not Accepting new enrollments as they are closing the doors in June 06.
Pays 1% of your member level for surfing 50 sites for 200 days, paid me $64.00 on 2/11/05
1. Mission Hits
Before Joining Read this post by the administrator also read the support from members
Pays 2% for surfing 50 sites for 120 days, cashout at $15 mass payout at the beginning of every month, compounding available. Paid Me $19 on 1/09/05 then I upgraded with earnings.
I have just started testing the site below and will keep you informed of the progress
Earn 5.5% for surfing 10 sites
upgrades last 30 days
Earn 4% for surfin 30 sites upgrades last for 45days
In the ones below I have either upgraded with earnings or compounded and not been paid out yet. I will keep you informed.
Upgraded with earnings
Compounded from day one in the programs mentioned below
Sites that "Don't Pay".
I will post programs here that I have upgraded in, tested and that have not paid me.
Tested myself and I can say "Not Paying"
Tested myself and again "Not Paying"
Joined in July 05, supposed to be 30 day turn around, "still waiting"
Trumpsurf is back, I lost $80 the first time round and now they say they are new owners. Will Not risk any more money
Supa10 was owned by the same owner as trumpsurf, they came back, I gave them the benefit of the doubt after losing $25 the first time round I upgraded this time. Yep and it's "Gone again"
Paid me 5 times, then ran into problems with DDOS attacks, came back for a short period still waiting for them to reappear.
Sorry to see these guys go, paid me 7 times, now they are closing the doors along with all their other sites
Owners of speed2cash closing the doors here too, another great program which paid me on time every time.
Closed the doors
1. Open Fire Fox Browser
2. Delete the address already loaded in your browser (google start page)
3. Copy and paste validation link into the address bar
4. Press Enter
5. Let the page Load enter your password, it will take you to a log in page Do Not Log In
6. Left Click FILE at the top of your browser
7. From the dropdown menu left click "NEW TAB"
8. An Empty page will load
9. Copy and Paste your next validation link into the address bar
10. Press Enter
11. The Page will load, again enter your password, Do Not Log In
12. Left Click Bookmarks
13. From the dropdown Left Click Bookmark this page
14. A pop up grey box will appear
NAME: the last page you loaded will be here
CREATE IN: “Bookmarks”
A check box Tick it “Bookmark all tabs in Folder”
15. You will also see 2 drop down arrows to the far right of the above box on your screen
16. Left Click the furthest arrow which stands alone
17. The box will extend
18. Left Click “NEW FOLDER”
19. Then Type in a name for your group “SURF DAILY”
20. Then Left Click Ok
21. Then Left Click Ok again
22. The pop up would have disappeared
23. Then log into each program
24. Enter User name and Password click log in
25. A grey pop up will appear asking if you want this information saved
26. Click YES
27. Do the same for each program
28. Open each tab individually then click Surf
29. Keep checking each surf bar by clicking the tab at the top of the browser, each tab opens a new page, watch for the extra credits in the surf bars.
30. Once you have finished surfing all programs you can log into your accounts from the surf bar, where it says Open Account
31. Check the site you are promoting has credits allocated have a look round if you want to. If you need to allocate credits click the arrow to the right of the heading Account Credits in your account this will bring up another box for you to enter the amount of credits into, then click Allocate.
32. Click LOG OUT when you are finished
33. All of the programs have a minimum amount of pages to be surfed for payment, once you have reached the limit it shows in the surf bar, you have been paid today. It is good to save the programs to similar groups like surf 100, or surf 50 etc keeping them together, they also let you run over for extra credits to your site, it is up to you what ever you prefer to do.
Follow the same procedure and call it “Funding accounts” or Exchange Currency” whatever you are happy with.
That’s it, your (sufing) is finished for today
I came across this information in a forum, and thought it was something everyone should know!
E-Gold will never send emails asking you to click a link and to verify your account details, Delete any emails recieved to this nature as they are phishing sites and will steal your log in details along with your MONEY!! This is also applies to all online processors
How To Prevent Your E-gold Account From Being Hacked
Once you register an E-gold account, beware of the fact that it might become an object for numerous hackers' attacks. All transactions conducted within this system are irreversible, and this is the factor which makes E-gold accounts so attractive for hackers. However, it is quite possible to avoid losing your money by taking a few steps towards making your E-gold account as secure as possible.
To find the E-gold certificate, click on the gold lock in the address bar on the log in page. A popup window will come up where you can view the certificate.
E-gold certificate number should be the following: 58:7C C8:8D BA:AB DF:C3 FD:81 BB:2E 5B:93 69:31. In case of the certificate number being different, it is better to close the window of your browser and do everything all over again.
Given the enormous number of spying software (also known as "spyware") on the Internet, E-gold has taken extensive security measures to prevent the accounts of its members from unauthorized access. The most important of these measures are Browser Access settings and IP Address Change
The first measure detects the change of an Internet browser (e.g. Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Mozilla etc) with the help of which an E-gold account is being accessed while the second one is in charge of an IP address change (when you are using a different computer). Both of these options should be set to "Highest" at all times (by default they are set to "Medium", so you should readjust your settings manually after you log in to your account).
In case the system detects the slightest change in the IP address, it will generate a special PIN number and will automatically send it to the e-mail address you used at sign-up with E-gold. That's why it is vital to create a new e-mail address specifically for this purpose and never reveal it to anyone or use it in any other way. Use a different e-mail address to sign up with investment programs.
If your local ISP does not provide you with an e-mail address (which would be the most ultimate option), it is best to use public e-mail services with higher level of security (for instance, you might consider Gmail.com or FastMail.com whose accounts are not easy to hack). Try to avoid using Hotmail or Yahoo - professional hackers crack their passwords within a couple of hours.
In case you did not receive a PIN number at your e-mail account, try again. If the problem persists, you might consider contacting E-gold's customer support.
It is not secure enough to enter your account number and password manually, as "Trojan Horses" and other spying software of this sort spot everything you type on your keyboard and momentarily transfer this information to the ones who have sent them to your computer.
Instead, try using the SRK (virtual keyboard) option offered by E-gold to its clients. Once you click on a round picture with the letters "SRK" on it (it is located to the right from your password field), a virtual keyboard will open in a new window.
Enter your password by clicking on letters with your mouse (every time you activate this option, the letters are laced in a different order). Use the arrow sign to see more symbols on the keyboard (such as capital letters or numbers). After the password is entered, close the keyboard window and hit "Enter". Keep in mind that your password should never be a word which can be found in dictionaries and should always contain both letters and digits.
Alternatively, you can choose to use some more advanced software with a similar concept (for example, RoboForm - its free version is available for download at http://www.roboform.com).
Once you have checked your account balance and conducted all the necessary transactions, click "Log Out" and close your browser window. Then go to the "Properties" section of your browser and click "Delete Cookies". By clearing your cache you eliminate the risk of unwanted programs being activated.
In addition, you should have a standard set of anti-virus software installed on your computer. Should there be a new update of the software you are using, do not hesitate to download it (an automatic notification will appear on your screen).
Remember that you are allowed to open multiple E-gold accounts. So if you are using big amounts of money for online transactions, it would be best to split it proportionally between these accounts, with a different password being set up for each of them. Never use the same password for your e-mail and E-gold account.
Also, do not keep large amounts of money on your account balance. Transfer the money to a destination account without unnecessary waiting (but if you have started having doubts
about a particular program, it's better not to invest).
Finally, change your e-mail and E-gold password at least once per two months. Many closed programs sell their databases to hackers, so you never know who might find out your E-gold account number.
Do not be lazy - it's better to spend a few minutes changing your password than a few years recovering your stolen money.
Always run your antivirus and defrag daily always delete everything in temp files
1. Click on the start menu
2. Select all programs
3. Select accessories
4. Select system tools
5. Select Disk Defrag
6. Select Analyze
Cleaning Temp Files:-
1. Left Click Start Button
2. Left Click My Computer
3. Double Left Click HDD[C]
4. Double Left Click Windows Folder
5. Double Left Click Temp File
6. Delete everything in here
Viruses from surfing are stored in the temp file
I have tried numerous antivirus programs and firewall programs . YOU NEED THIS ONE to conquer all: http://www.iolo.com/sm/
Admin is amazing, you need help, they are there, the program is simple to run.
He lets you download the full version (once you have opened the page, click on the picture and it takes you to a page to download for free) and allows you to try it FREE for 30 days, I always down load the free versions to try out first, then I used to move on to the next one.
With System Mechanic the only thing I will be doing is upgrading when they bring out a newer version. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED, I would not run my computer WITHOUT IT!
Download System Mechanic at the link above, you will see what I mean, once you have used up your trial period contact me by email below, and I will send you a free $5 voucher off the product. Believe me once you try this product you deffinately won't want to give it up.
I have since upgraded to system mechanic professional 6, really impressed.
Monday, December 04, 2006
MY BUSINESS WEB SITES
These web-sites are very important for my business as I use them as a tools and for earning
The Secret? Click here for a front row seat!
posted by Frida | 10:02:00 AM links to this post
Sunday, December 03, 2006
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GOOD LUCK to everyone
posted by Frida | 1:40:00 PM | 2 comments links to this post
Saturday, December 02, 2006
Aug, 02 '09 Subject: U NEED 2 KNOW, Viewed by: 2392
NAME IS MITHU
Aug, 18 '08 Subject: G.K., Viewed by: 3087
QUIZE (Q)(1)What is the colour of the ‘black box’ of an aeroplane? (Ans)- Bright orange. (Q)(2) Who coined the term ‘globalisation’? (Ans)- Theodor Levitt. (Q)(3)So far, 4 presidnts of the US have been assassinatd while in office. If Abraham Lincoln,Jhon F. Kennedy and James A. Garfield are three,who is the 4th? (Ans)- William McKinley. (Q)(4)Which famous chemist was accused of plotting to cheat the French government and executed on May8,1794? (Ans)- Antoine Lavoisire. (Q)(5)The name of which food-item comes from an Italian word meaning ‘pie’? (Ans)- Pizza. (Q)(6)Who was the 1st person to succefully climb Mount Everest solo without using supplemental oxygen? (Ans)- Reinhold Messner. (Q)(7) In which city in India is Rashtrapati Nilayam located? (Ans)- Hyderabad. (Q)(8)Who taught Lord Krishna the Vedas? (Ans)- Sandipani. (Q)(9) In which session of the Indian National Congress was Vande Mataram sung for the first time? (Ans)- 1896 Calcutta Session. (Q)(10) To which class of animals do snails belong? (Ans)- Molluscs. (Q)(11)Which novelist and founder member of IPTA wrote the scripts films like Bobby and Jagte Raho? (Ans)- Khwaja Ahmed Abbas. (Q)(12) What is thanatology a study of? (Ans)- Death. (Q)(13)Which city in Madhya Pradesh is located in the vicinity of the famous marble rocks that rise like cliffs from the river Narmada? (Ans)- Jabalpur. (Q)(14)Who swore in Jawaharlal Nehru as India’s first Prime Minister? (Ans)- Lord Mountbattn. (Q)(15)Which loose flowing outer garment worn by the ancient Romans derives its name from the Latin for “to cover”? (Ans)- Toga. (Q)(16)Aphrodite Terra and Ishtar Terra are the 2 major landmasses on which planet? (Ans)- Venus. (Q)(17)What is the name of the giant cannon,the largest in India,housed in Jaigarh fort,and first installed in 1720? (Ans)- Jaivana. (Q)(18)What sporting title did Tsar Nicholas create at the end of a chess tournament held in St Petersburg in 1914? (Ans)- Grandmaster. (Q)(19)Who was declared Man of the year for 1938 by time magazine? (Ans)- Adolf Hitler. (Q)(20)Which is the most abundant metallic element in the human body ? (Ans)- Calcium. (Q)(21)From which Upanishad have the words ‘Satyameva Jayate’been taken? (Ans)- Mandak UpaniShad. (Q)(22)The slogan of which movement dealt with the proveision of the five F’s-food,fuel,fodder,fertiliser and fibre? (Ans)- Cipko Movement. (Q)(23)Who was the founder of Bharat Anushilan Samity? (Ans)- Satish Candra Bose. (Q)(24)What is divided into chapters called Mitrabheda, Mitralabha, Kakolukiya, Labdhapranasa and Apariksitakaraka? (Ans)- Panchatantra. (Q)(25)Which country’s flag features stalks of suggarcane,a palm tree, bananas and a white dove? (Ans)- Fiji. (Q)(26)Which painter’s autobiography is Pandharpur Ka Ek Ladka? (Ans)- M .F.Husain. (Q)(27)Which Union Territory derives its name from a mandir located in the village of Mani Majra? (Ans)- Chandigarh. (Q)(28)Which scientist shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Watson and Crick for his work on the structure of DNA? (Ans)- Maurice Wilkins. (Q)(29) What is the colour of the majority of balls in the game of snooker? (Ans)- Red. (Q)(30)What is the name of the drug that Satyajit Ray’s Prof. Shonku invented as a sure cure for any ailment? (Ans)- Miracure All. (Q)(31) When the metric system was created , what was defined as the mass of 1 cubic decimetre of pure water at the temperature of its maximum density? (Ans)- The kilogram. (Q)(32)On whose life is Bhavabhuti’s 8th century play Mahaviracharita principally based? (Ans)- Rama. (Q)(33) With which team did Brazilian driver Felipe Massa who won his first F1 title at the 2006 Turkish Grand Prix begin his Formula 1 career? (Ans)- Sauber. (Q)(34)Who wrote the script for Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zameen,based on a story by Salil Choudhury? (Ans)- Hrishikesh Mukherjee. (Q)(35)Which rishi’s parents were sage Parashara and the fisherwoman Matsyagandha? (Ans)- Vyasa. (Q)(36) Which Prime Minister’s first names are Anthony Charles Lynton? (Ans)- Tony Blair. (Q)(37)What children’s publication did filmmakers B.Nagi Reddi and his friend Chakrapani found in 1947? (Ans)- Chandamama. (Q)(38) Yours Forever is the English version of which Rajshri Film? (Ans)- Hum Apke Hain Kaun. (Q)(39)Which Political leader has authored The Garden of Life - An introduction to the Healing Plants of India? (Ans)- Naveen Patnaik. (Q)(40) The name of which flower means ‘golden flower’ in Latin? (Ans)- Chrysanthemum. (Q)(41)Which Mughal emperor is said to have offered his life to God in exchange for his son and died within one year of his son’s recovery? (Ans)- Babur. (Q)(42) Which game is named for the country estate of the dukes of Beaufort in Gloucestershire? (Ans)- Badminton. (Q)(43) Jolly Grant airport is closest to which state capital of India? (Ans)- Dehra Dun. (Q)(44)Which scientist used a phonograph to record the human voice by singing Mary had a little Lamb? (Ans)- Thomas Alva Edison. (Q)(45) Which First Lady of the United States was the first to be elected to public office and the first woman elected independently statewide in New York State? (Ans)- Hilary Rodham Clinton. (Q)(46) What is is agnotology the study of? (Ans)- Ignorance. (Q)(47) What is the common name for the large rays(fish), that make up the family Dasyatidae, having broad , flattened pectoral fins that gi ve them an almost diamond shape? (Ans)- Stingray. (Q)(48) Who was the first chief minister of Jharkhand? (Ans)- Babulal Marandi. (Q)(49) Of which actress did Stephen Hawking once say “I suppose you could say she was a model of the universe!”? (Ans)- Marilyn Monroe. (Q)(50) Which folk singer from Bengal provided the music for the Shyam film Arohan? (Ans)- Purna Das Baul. (Q)(51) What is the collective noun for a group of ants? (Ans)- Colony. (Q)(52) Which sportsman lends his name to the spinal disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ? (Ans)- Lou Gehrig. (Q)(53) What does ‘pundarik’ mean in ‘Pundarikaksha’, a name for Lord Vishnu? (Ans)- Lotus. (Q)(54) Which variety of soil is referred to as Bhabbar , Khadar and Bhangar in different regions of India? (Ans)- Alluvial (Q)(55) Who was the first criketer to receive the Arjuna Award? (Ans)- Salim Durrani. (Q)(56) What is the Ramanujan number, which is the smallest number that can be represented as the sum of two cubes in two differnt way? (Ans)- 1729. (Q)(57) Who said “A penalty is a cowardly way to score”? (Ans)- Pele. (Q)(58) ‘Hawkeye State’ is the nicname of which state of the United State of America? (Ans)- Iowa. (Q)(59) In 1972, who became the first person to win a second Nobel Prize for Physics? (Ans)- John Bardeen. (Q)(60) Razm-Namah is a Persian translation of which Indian work? (Ans)- Mahabharata. (Q)(61) Which nut are dishes described as ‘amandine’served with ? (Ans)- Almonds. (Q)(62) What was the name of husband of Noor Jahan? (Ans)- Sher Afghan. (Q)(63) In Norse mythology which son of Sif was married to the thunder god Thor? (Ans)- Ull. (Q)(64) Which English footballer’s latest autobiography is My Story So Far? (Ans)- Wayne Rooney. (Q)(65) Who was the first Prime minister in Thailand’s history to lead an elected government through a full four - year term in office? (Ans)- Thaksin Shinawatra. (Q)(66) Which novel, made into a film deals with US- based NRI characters called Ashoke and Ashima Ganguli? (Ans)- The Namesake. (Q)(67) Which American athlete broke Bob Beamon’s long jump record of 890 metres? (Ans)- Mike Powell. (Q)(68) In which Pakistani province is the world heritage site of Texila situated ? (Ans)- Punjab. (Q)(69) If the five - toed dragon symbolised the Emperor of China, which creature represented the Empress ? (Ans)- Phoenix. (Q)(70) Which fruit belonging to the genus Musa of the family Musaceae has its name often used to describe the state of becoming crazy or angry? (Ans)- Banana. (Q)(71) According to the Ramayana,in which river did Lord Rama take jal-samadhi and attained Vaikuntha ? (Ans)- Sarayu. (Q)(72) What phrase or abbreviation ends Proposition 5 in the first Book of Euclid’s treatise on geometry,Elements? (Ans)- Q.E.D.(Quod erat demonstrandum - thus is it proved) (Q)(73) Who was the first non-party legislator to become a chief minister in the country after the first general elections in 1952? (Ans)- Prafulla Chandra Ghosh(W.B.). (Q)(74) What publication was founded in 1843 “to take part in a severe contest between intelligence,which presses forward,and an unworthy,timid ignorance obstructing our progress” ? (Ans)- The Economist. (Q)(75) Which of Herge’s work was published in an unfinshed form in 1986? (Ans)- Tintin and the Alpha-Art. (Q)(76) The Blue Peacock,the Kaiser-E-Hind,the Dipper and the Bhutan Glory are different species of which winged creature? (Ans)- Butterflies. (Q)(77) The ground of which football club played host to the 2006 World Cup final? (Ans)- Hertha Berlin. (Q)(78) Which media planner made his Hindi film debut with Jism? (Ans)- John Abraham. (Q)(79) What is the loss of sense of smell called? (Ans)- Anosmia. (Q)(80) According to the Guinness Book of World Records,which is the most popular song in the English language? (Ans)- Happy Birthday to You. (Q)(81) In Indian history,who established the city of Jahanpanah? (Ans)- Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. (Q)(82) Which famous mythical hero died when he wore a tunic smeared with the blood of the centaur Nessus? (Ans)- Hercules. (Q)(83) In which country is the Etosha National Park and the Mangetti Game Reserve? (Ans)- Namibia. (Q)(84) The incoming Hindi translation of whose political memoirs is titled Agnipath? (Ans)- Pervez Musharraf. (Q)(85) Which venomous North American snakes are so named because of the sound made by their tails that shake vigorously to warn off intruders? (Ans)- Rattlesnake. (Q)(86) Which legendary Tamil actress made her debut in dancer Uday Shankar’s Hindi film Kalpana in 1948? (Ans)- Padmini. (Q)(87) Which country’s recent election result have made way for Fredrik Reinfeldt to become its new PM ? (Ans)- Sweden. (Q)(88) Which 347- room palace designed by H.V. Lancaster stands on the Chittar hill in Jodhpur and was commissioned in 1929 as a famine relief exercise? (Ans)- Umaid Bhawan. (Q)(89) Which painter known for depicting the nightlife of late 19-th century Paris painted a work titled ‘La Goulue Entering the Moulin Rouge’? (Ans)- Henri de Toulouse Lautrec. (Q)(90) According to Hindu mythology which sage was blessed by Lord Shiva to remain at sixteen years of age for ever? (Ans)- Markandeya. (Q)(91) Which 18th century French naturalist wrote Histoire Naturelle, a 36- volume work,which was the first naturalistic account of the history of the Earth? (Ans)- Georges Buffon. (Q)(92) Which word in the English language is derived from the Hindustani for ‘belonging to Bengal’? (Ans)- Bungalow. (Q)(93) Which Nobel Peace Prize winning organisation had as its president Carlo Urbani,the doctor who first identified the SARS,and eventually died of it in 2003 ? (Ans)- Medecins Sans Frontiers(Doctors without Border). (Q)(94) In which state of India is the Rudrasagar Lake located? (Ans)- Tripura. (Q)(95) Which Pakistani batsman hit a six on the last ball of an ODI to tie the match? (Ans)- Asif Mujtaba(against Australia). (Q)(96) Who is the author of plays titled Karnabharam, Urubhangam and Svapnavasavadattam? (Ans)- Bhasa. (Q)(97) Which Nobel Laureate was first admitted to Oriental Seminary School? (Ans)- Rabindranath Tagore. (Q)(98) By what name is Marie Grasholtz who first exhibiited her work in 1835 at Baker Street ? (Ans)- Madame Tussauds. (Q)(99) Made in 1932 , which film starring Nissar had 71 songs? (Ans)- Indra Sabha. (Q)(100) In Norse mythology, who is the goddess of love,beauty and youth? (Ans)- Freya. (Q)(101) Who wrote the autobiographical collection of poems, A Child’s Garden of Verses? (Ans)- R.L.Stevenson. (Q)(102) The currency of which American nation was named after Vasco Nunez de Balboa? (Ans)- Panama. (Q)(103) Which city is served by the newly opened Suvarnabhumi Airport ? (Ans)- Bangkok. (Q)(104) Who along with Muzaffar Ahmad founded the Communist Party of India and served as its chairman? (Ans)- Shripad Amrit Dange. (Q)(105) What new title did Jane Austen give to her re-worked novel earlier named First Impressions? (Ans)- Pride and Prejudice. (Q)(106) Who has scored the maximum runs in the ICC Champions Trophy matches since its inception in 1998? (Ans)- Sourav Ganguly. (Q)(107) Unmadana and Sammohana are the names of the arrows of which Hindu God? (Ans)- Kamadeva. (Q)(108) What is the common name of the animal having the scientific name Daboia russellii, belonging to family Viperidae? (Ans)- Russell’s Viper. (Q)(109) Subansiri, Dhansiri and Manas are the principal tributaries of which river? (Ans)- Brahmaputra. (Q)(110) From 1943 to 1945, who was the director of Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico,where the first atomic bombs were developed? (Ans)- Robert Oppenheimer. (Q)(111) Which fruit of the genus Citrus derives its name from the Persian word Narang? (Ans)- Orange. (Q)(112) Who directed landmark TV serials like Byomkesh Bakshi, Kakkaji Kahin,Bhim Bhawani and Rajani? (Ans)- Basu Chatterjee. (Q)(113) The commonly used word ‘cab’ originated from which french word? (Ans)- Cabriolet. (Q)(114) Who is some times referred to as the ‘father of modern chemistry’? (Ans)- Robert Boyle. (Q)(115) The prime minidter and president of which country are the world’s only twins to hold the two highest posts in any country? (Ans)- Poland. (Q)(116) Whos experiences in Spain were described in Homage to Catalonia? (Ans)- George Orwell. (Q)(117) Which country celebrats its national holiday on January 26, which is the anniversary of Captain Arthur Philip unfurling the British flag there? (Ans)- Australia. (Q)(118) Which fictional character was born on January 6,1854? (Ans)- Sherlock Holmes. (Q)(119) Which Lodi sultan shifted his capital to Agra? (Ans)- Sikander Lodi. (Q)(120) The youngest person to be granted a patent in the US is a four -year - old girl from Houston , Texas. What has she developed an aid for ? (Ans)- Grasping Knobs. (Q)(121) Which male golfer has won the most number of Grand Slam titles? (Ans)- Jack Nicklaus. (Q)(122) Which bird can fly backward? (Ans)- Hummingbird. (Q)(123) What are ping pong balls made of? (Ans)- Celluloid. (Q)(124) Which mountain peak is called Chomolungma in Tibet? (Ans)- Mt Everest. MEN’S HOCKEY WORLD CUP AT A GLANCE(1971- 2006) 1971- Pakistan bt Spain 1- 0. 1973- The Netherlands bt India 6-4. 1975- India bt Pakistan 2-1. 1978- Pakistan bt Holand 3-2. 1982- Pakistan bt West Germany 3-1. 1986- Australia bt England 2-1. 1990- The Netherlands bt Pakistan 3-1. 1994- Pakistan bt The Netherlands 5-4. 1998- The Netherlands bt Spain 3-2. 2002- Germany bt Australia 2-1. 2006- Germany bt Australia 4 -3. FACTS ABOUT INDIA Standerd time- 82o 3’E. Most populous District- Medinipur. Least populous District- Yanam. Most Literate District- Aiawl. Largest State- Rajasthan. Smallest State- Goa. Most populous State- UP. Least populous State- Sikim. Southern most point- Indira point. Max. N-S distance - 3,214 km. Max. E-W distance - 2,933 km. Golden Quadrilateral connecting 4metros- distance - 5846 km. Major Ports on coastline- 12-(181others). SOFT TARGETS 24\9\02 - Gunmen storm Akshardham temple in Gandhinagar killing over 20 people. 24\12\04 - A grenade blast near a Srinagar mosque kills 2 persons. 5\7\2005- Terrorists attack the makeshift Ram temple. 7\3\06 - A blast at the Sankat mochan temple in Varanasi just before Holi. 12\8\06- A grenade blast near a Guwahati temple kills a lady. 16\8\06 - Blast in the Iskcon temple in Imphal at the night of janmastam1. 8\9\06 - Blast in the kabar sthan of Mahelgano at the day of sabe barat THE FIVE WORST AIR DISASTERS 3\3\1974 - Turkish DC 10 crashes northeast of Paris. 351killed. 27\3\1977 - 2 Boeing 747s operated by Pan American and KLM collide at the airport on Tenerife in spain;s Canary Islands,582 killed. 23\6\1985 - Air - India Boeing 747 329 killed. 12\8\1985 - Japan Air Lines Boeing 747 crashes into a mountain on a domestic flight. 520 killed. 12\11\1996 - Mid - air crash of 2 airlines (Saudi and Kazakh) in Bhiwani district, Haryna,351killed. WORLD’S TOP TEN POPULAR TOURIST DESTINATIONS Country No. of international visitors France 75m Spain 51.8m USA 41.2m Italy 39.6m China 33m UK 24.7m Austria 19.1m Mexico 18.7m Germany 18.4m Canada 17.5m ‘A SMALL SLAM’ ACHIEVERS Players who have won three of the four Grand Slam tournaments in the same year,are said to have achieved ‘a small slam’. The following is the list. Jack Crawford (Aus,1933)-Australian,French,US Open. Fred Perry (Eng,1934)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open. Tony Trabert (US,1955)- French,Wimbledon,US Open. Lew Hoad (Aus,1956)-Australian Open ,French Open,Wimbledon. Ashley Cooper (Aus,1958)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open. Roy Emerson (Aus,1964)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open. Jimmy Connors (US,1974)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open. Mats Wilander (Swe,1988)-Australian,French,US Open. Roger Federer (Sui,2004)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open. Roger Federer(Sui,2006)- Australian,Wimbledon,US Open. US OPEN(2006) Men’s Singles - Roger Federer (1,Sui)bt Andy Roddick(9,US)6-2, 4-6, 7-5,6-1. Women’s Singles - Maria Sharapova (3,Rus)bt Justine Henin Hardenne(2,Bel)6-4,6-4. Men’s Doubles - Leander Paes (6,Ind)& Martin Damm(6,Cze) bt Jonas Bjorkman(2,Swe)& Max Mirnyi(2,Bir) 6-7 (7-5),6-4,6-3. Women’s Doubles - Nathalie Dechy (Fra) & Vera Zvonareva (Rus) bt Dinara Safina (8,Rus) & Katarina Srebotnik (8,Slo)7-6,7-5. Mixed Doubles - Martina Navratilova and Bob Bryan(5,US) bt Kveta Peschke and Martin Damm(Cze)6-2,6-3. Boys Singles - Dusan Lojda (10,Cze) bt Peter Polansky(Can)7-6(7-4),6-3. Girls Singles - Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova (1,Rus) bt Tamira Paszek(11,Aut)3-6,6-4,7-5. Boys Doubles - Jamie Hunt & Nathaniel Schnugg(US) bt Jarmere Jenkins & Austin Krajicek (US) 6-3,6-3. Girls Doubles - Mihaela Buzarnescu & Raluca Olaru (2,Rom) bt Sharon Fichman (1,Can) & Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova (1,Rus)7-5,6-2. WHERE THEY REST Mahtma Gandhi - Rajghat. Jawaharlal Nehru - Santhivan. B.R. Ambedkar - Chaithrabhoomi. Indira Gandhi - Sakthisthal. Charan Singh - Kisan Ghat. Zail Singh - Ekthashal. Rajiv Gandhi - Veerbhoomi. Morarji Desai - Abhayghat. Gulzarilal Nanda - Narayanghat. Jagjivan Ram - Samathastal. Lal Bahadur Shastri - Vijayghat. SIZZLING SACHIN(1994- 2006) 186* - vs NZ,Nov.8, 1999. 152 - vs Nam,Feb.23, 2003. 146 - vs Ken,Oct.24, 2001. 146 - vs Zim,Dec.8, 2000. 143 - vs Aus,April.22, 1998. 141* - vs WI,Sept.14, 2006. 141 - vs Pak,March.16, 2004. 141 - vs Aus,Oct.28, 1998. 140* - vs Ken,May.23,1999. 139 - vs Aus,March.31, 2001. 137 - vs SL,March.2,1996. 134 - vs Aus,April.24, 1998. 128 - vs SL, July 7,1998. 127* - vs Zim,Sept.26,1998. 127* - vs Ken,Feb.18, 1996. 124* - vs Zim,Nov.13, 1998. 123 - vs Pak,April.12,2005. 122* - vs WI,July 4, 2001. 122 - vs SA,March.17, 2000. 120 - vs SL, Aug.29,1999. 118* - vs ZIM,Nov.8, 1998. 118 - vs Pak,April.15, 1996. 117 - vs NZ,May.14,1997. 115 - vs NZ,Oct.28, 1994. 114 - vs SA,Dec.14,1996. 113 - vs SL, July 11,2002. 112* - vs SL, April.9, 1995. 110 - vs SL, Aug.28,1996. 110 - vs Aus,Sept.9, 1994. 105* - vs Eng,Sept.4,2002. 105 - vs WI,Nov.11, 1994. 104 - vs Zim,Feb.9, 1997. 102 - vs NZ,Nov.15,2003. 101 - vs SA.Oct.5, 2001. 101 - vs SL,Oct.20, 2000. 100* - vs Ken,May.31,1998. 100 - vs Aus,Oct.26,2003. 100- vs Aus,April.7, 1998. 100- vs Pak, April.5, 1996. 100- vs Pak ,Feb.6, 2006. INDIA’S TRIPLE TREATS(1995-2006) 376/2 - vs NZ ( 1999-00). 373/6 - vs SL ( 1999) 356/9 - vs Pak(2004-05) 353/5 - vs NZ(2003-04) 351/3 - vs Ken(2001-02) 350/6 - vs SL(2005-06) 349/7 - vs Pak(2003-04) 348/5 - vs Ban(2004-05) 333/6 -vs Zim(2001-02) 329/2- vs Ken ( 1999) 328 - vs Pak(2005-06) 326/8 - vs Eng(2002) 325/5- vs WI(2002-03) 319/6 -vs Zim(2001-02) 317- vs Pak(2003-04) 316/7- vs Pak(1997-98) 315- vs Aus(2000-01) 315/6-vs Pak(2004-05) 311/2- vs Nam(2002-03) 310- vs SA ( 1999-00) 309/5- vs Aus(1997-98) 309/5- vs WI (2006-07) 307/6-vs SL (1998) 307/8- vs Aus(1998-99) 307/4- vs SA(2003) 306- vs NZ( 1999-00) 306/5-vs Zim(2000-01) 305/5-vs Pak(1995-96) 304- vs SL (2002) 303/4- vs Aus(2003-04) 303/4- vs SL (2005-06) 302/7- vs SA ( 1999-00) 301/213-vs Zim(1997-98) 301/6-vs Zim(2000-01) 300/7-vs SL (1997) DEPUTY PMs(1947-2004) Sardar Patel - 1947-50. Morarji Desai - 1967-69. Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram(jointly) - 1979. Yashwantrao Chavan - 1979-80. Devi Lal - 1989-90. Devi Lal - 1990-91. L.K. Advani - 2002-04. PLANET NAMES The term ‘planets’is dervied from the Greek word ‘planetes’-meaning wanderers. The planets were named after the Roman Gods. Mercury - God of commerce,eloquence,skill. V enus - Goddess of spring,bloom,beauty. Mars - God of war. Jupiter - Ruler of Gods and all men. Saturn - God of agriculture. Uranus - God of Heavens. Neptune - God of the sea. HIGHEST SIXTH-WICKET PARTNERSHIPS IN ODIs(1991-2006) 166,M.Hussey/B. Haddin - Aus vs WI , Sept.18,2006. 161,M. Odumbe/ A. Vadher- Ken vs SL ,May 30,1999. 158,Yuvraj Singh/M. Dhoni- Ind vs Zim, Sept.4,2005. 154, R. Richardson/J. Dujon- WI vs Pak, Oct.21,1991. 150,M. Vaughan/G. Jones- Eng vs Zim, Dec. 5,2004. 145*,M.Hussey/ S. Watson-Aus vs WI ,Oct.9,2005. ODI CENTURY SCORD ON DEBUT AS CAPTAIN-(1975-2006) 171*, Glenn Turner- NZ vs EAF. June 7, 1975. 110,Sachin Tendulkar- Ind vs SL,Aug. 28,1996. 109*,Mike Hussey-Aus vs WI , Sept.18,2006. 106*,Richie Richardson-WI vs Pak, Oct.17,1991. 102, Sanath Jayasuriya- SL vs Zim,Jan. 26,1998. 101, Irvine Romaine- Ber vs Can Aug. 21,2006. DEFENDING LOW TOTALS OF INDIA 125 in 42.4 ovs- bt Pak(1984-85) 162 in 47.4 ovs- bt NZ(1980-81) 162 in 39.3 ovs- bt WI(2006-07) 170/7 in 40 ovs- bt Pak(1978-79) 179 in 49.5 ovs- bt SL(1998-99) HIGHIEST ODI TEAM TOTALS 443/9- by SL vs NL(July 4 ,2006) 438/9- by SA vs Aus( March12 ,2006) 434/4- by Aus vs SA(March 12 ,2006) 418/5- by SA vs Zim(Sept.20 ,2006) 398/5- by SL vs Ken(March 6 ,1996) FASTEST ODI CENTURIES 37 balls - S. Afridi(102). 44 balls - M. Boucher(147*). 45 balls - B.Lara(117). 45 balls - S. Afridi(102). 48 balls - S. Jayasuriya(134). COUNTRY SYMBOLS Country Symbol India Royal Bengal tiger Canada Maple leaf USA Bald eagle Colombia Orchid Spain Red carnation Russia Brown bear Japan Cherry blossom Denmark Beech tree South Africa Blue crane Greece Olive branch China Dragon Argentina Ceibo(flower) Bulgaria Lion England Rose Wales Leek,dragon Scotland Thistle Turkey Tulip Australia Golden wattle flower Ireland Shamrock TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSES(2002-2010) Date Visible from parts of 4/12/2002 S. Africa,Australia 23/11/2003 Antarctica 8/4/2005 S&C Pacific,C. America 29/3/2006 C.Atlantic,W&N Africa, Asia 1/8/2008 Greenland,N&C Asia 22/7/2009 S Asia,C Pacific 11/7/2010 S Pacific GREETING PEOPLE Namaste/Namaskar- In Hindi. Ahlan wasahlan- In Arabic. Hallo- In English. Vanakkam- In Tamil. Namaskaram- In Malayalam. Bonjour- In French. Zdravstvuyitye- In Russia. Guten Tag - In German. Buongiorno- In Italian. Assalm-u- alaikum- In Urdu. Nin hao - In Mandarin. Sat Sri Akal- In Punjabi. Nomoskar- In Bengali. TOP 20 URBAN CENTRES URBAN CENTRES POPULATION 1.Tokyo,Japan 26,683,000 2.Sao Paulo,Brazil 18,916,000 3.Mexico City,Mexico 18,580,000 4.Mumbai,India 17,384,000 5.New York City,USA 16,979,000 6.Dhaka,Bangladesh 14,414,000 7.Delhi,India 14,067,000 8.Kolkata,India 13,784,000 9.Los Angeles,US 13,541,000 10.Shanghai,China 13,023,000 11.Buenos Aires,Argentina 12,271,000 12.Jakarta,Indonesia 12,234,000 13.Karachi,Pakistan 11,058,000 14.Osaka,Japan 11,013,000 15.Rio de Janeiro,Brazil 10,958,000 16.Beijing,China 10,486,000 17.Manila,Philippines 10,380,000 18.Logos,Nigeria 10,034,000 19.Seol, Republic of Korea 9,888,000 20.Cairo,Egypt 9,833,000 FOREIGN BORN RULERS Name Country Post Born in Carlos Menem Argentina President Syria Alberto Fujimori Peru President Japan Abdala Bucaram Ecuador President Lebanon Janet Jagan Guyana President America Adlof Hitler Germany Chancellor Austria Kenneth Kaunda Zambia President Malawi Hendrick Verwoerd South Africa Prime Minister Holland Adrene Poi Clarkson Argentina Gov-General Hong Kong WORLD POPULATION-2005 CONTINENTS POPULATION Asia 3,879,000,000 Africa 877,500,000 Europe 727,000,000 North America 501,500,000 South America 379,500,000 Australia/Oceania 32,000,000 Antarctica 0 Total 6,396,500,000 UN SECRETARIES GENERAL Year Name Nation 1946 Trygve Lie Norway 1953 Dag Hammarskjold Sweden 1961 U Thant Burma 1972 Kurt Waldheim Austria 1982 Javier Peres De Cuellar Peru 1992 Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali Egypt 1997 Kofi Annan Ghana THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD SEVEN WONDERS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD (1)The Colossus of Rhodes. (2)ThePharos(lighthouse)at Alexandria. (3)The Hanging Gardens (and Walls)of Babylon. (4)The temple of Artemis (or Diana)at Ephesus. (5)The Pyramids of Khufu. (6)The tomb of Mausolus at Hali carnassus. (7)The Statue of Zeus at Olympia. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE MIDDLE AGE (1)The Colosseum of Rome. (2)The Catacombs of Alexandria. (3)The Great Wall of China. (4)Stonehenge (5)The Porcelain Tower(or Pagoda) of Nanking,China. (6)Leaning Tower of Pisa,Italy. (7)Hagia Sophia(or Sancta Sophia) of Constantinople. SEVEN NATURAL WONDERS OF THE WORLD (1)The Grand Canyon,Colorado River,Airzona. (2)Rio de Janeiro harbour. (3)Iquassu Falls,Argentina. (4)Yosemite Vally and the Giant Sequioas of California. (5)Mount Everest,on the border of Tibet and Nepal. (6)The Nile River,Egypt. (7)The Northern Lights,especially from northern Canada and Alaska. SEVEN WONDERS OF TODAY (1)The Great Pyramid of Egypt and the adjacent Great Sphinx Gizeh. (2)Hagia Sophia,6th century,in present-day Istanbul. (3)Leaning Tower of Pisa,Italy. (4)The Taj Mahal of Agra,India. (5)The Washington Monument,Washington. (6)The Eiffel Tower,Paris. (7)The Empire State Building,New York city. RIVERS THROUGH WORLD CITIES CITY RIVER Antwerp Scheldt Baghdad Tigris Bangkok Chao phraya Berlin Spree Bonn Rhine and Seig Budapest Danube Cairo Nile Dublin Liffey Dresden Elbe Glasgow Clyde Lisbon Tagus London Thames Madrid Manzanares Montreal St.Lawrence and Ottawa Moscow Moskva New York Hudson Paris Seine Philadelphia Delaware Prague Vltava Rotterdam Rhine,Maas,Scheldt Shanghai Hwangpu Sydney Darling Warsaw Vistula Washington Potomac NATIONAL ANTHEMS India - Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka joya he,Bharata bhagya bidhata. Bangladesh - Amar Sonar Bangla,Ami Tomay Bhalobasi(My golden Bengal,I love you). Canada - O Canada,Our Home and Native Land. China - March of the Volunteers. Cyprus - Ode to Freedom. Dominica - Isle of Beauty. Estonia - My Fatherland. Germany - Unity and Right and Freedom. Greece - Hymn to Freedom. Hungary - God Bless Hungarians. Iceland - O God of Our Country. Japan - Kimi ga yo wa(May your Peaceful Reign Last Long). Myanmer(Burma) - We shall Love Burma Evermore. Pakistan - Quami Tarana. Panama - Victory is Ours at Last. Russia - Slavsya(Be Great). Saudi Arabia - Long Live Our Beloved King. Sri Lanka - Sri Lanka Matha , Apa Sri Lanka(Mother Sri Lanka,thy Sri Lanka). Tanzania - God Bless Africa. UK - God Save the Queen. USA - The Star -Spangled Banner. Zimbabwe - Blessed be the Country of Zimbabwe. ODI HATTRICKS Jalal - ud - Din(Pak) - vs Aus(20/9/1982). Bruce Reid(Aus) - vs NZ(29/1/1986). Chetan Sharma(Ind) - vs NZ(31/10/1987). Wasim Akram(Pak) - vs WI(20/9/1982). Wasim Akram(Pak) - vs Aus(4/5/1990). Kapil Dev(Ind) - vs Sl(4/1/1991). Aaqib Javed(Pak) - vs Ind(25/10/1991). Danny Morrison(NZ) - vs Ind(25/3/1994). Waqar Younis(Pak) - vs NZ(19/12/1994). Saqlain Mushtaq (Pak) - vs Zim(3/11/1996). Eddo Brandes(Zim) - vs Eng(3/1/1997). Anthony Stuart(Aus) - vs Pak(16/1/1997). Saqlain Mushtaq (Pak) - vs Zim(11/6/1999). Chaminda Vaas(SL) - vs Zim(8/12/2001). Mohammed Sami (Pak) - vs WI(15/2/2002). Chaminda Vaas(SL) - vs Ban(14/2/2003). Brett Lee(Aus) - vs Ken(15/3/2003). James Anderson(Eng) - vs Pak(20/6/2003). Steve Harmison(Eng) - vs Ind(1/9/2004). Chari Langeveldt(SA) - vs WI(11/5/2005). Shahadat Hossain(Ban) - vs Zim(2/8/2006). Jarome Taylor(WI) - vs Aus(18/10/2006). PIOs IN POWER ABROD Name Country Year Post Mahendra Chaudhary Fiji 1999 Prime Minister C.V. Devan Nair Singapore 1981 President S.R. Nathan Singapore 1999 President Mahathir Mohammed Malaysia 1981 Prime Minister Cheddi Jagan Guyana 1953 Prime Minister 1992 President Bharat Jagdeo Guyana 1999 President Sir Shivsagar Ramgoolam Mauritius 1988 Prime Minister Naveen Chandra Ramgoolam Mauritius 1995 Prime Minister Annerood Jugnauth Mauritius 1882 Prime Minister Veerasamy Ringadoo Mauritius 1992 President Cassam Uteem Mauritius 1992 President Noor Hassanani Trinidad &Tobago 1989 President Basudev Pande Trinidad &Tobago 1995 Prime Minister Jules Wijdenbosch Suriname 1996 President Krishnaprasad Bhattarai Nepal 1990 Prime Minister Manmohan Adhikari Nepal 1994 Prime Minister INDIAN NOBEL LAUREATES (1)Rabindranath Tagore,Literature,1913. (2)C.V.Raman,Physics,1930. (3)Hargobind Khorana,Medicine,1968. (4)Mother Teresa,Peace,1979. (5)Subramanian Chandrasekhar*,Physics,1983. (6)Amartya Sen,Economics,1998. (7)V.S.Naipaul*,Literature,2001. *Of Indian descent. THE INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATING ORGANIZATIONS 1.C I A(USA). 2. F B I(USA). 3. K G B(RUSSIA). 4.I S I(PAKISTAN)(J I X, J I B, J C I B, J I N, J I M, J S I B,J I T). 5.I B - INDIA. 6. R A W-INDIA. 7. M I-INDIA. 8.C B I-INDIA. THE INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS 1.A N O(1974). 2. A S G(1991). 3. A A M B(2000). 4. A A I(2001). 5. A I G(1992). 6. A A A 7.A S(1987) . 8. B F L 9.C P P/N P A(1969). 10. C I R A 11. G A I(1973).12.HAMAS(1987).13. H U M(1985).14. HIJBULLAH(1982). 15. I M U 16. J E M(2000).J I 18. A G 19.K C(1994). 20.K G, K W P 21. L E T(1989). 22. L E J(1996). 23.L T T E(1976).24. L I F G 25. M E K 26. N L A(1965). 27. P I J 28. P L F 29. P F L P(1967). 30.P F L P G C(1968). 31.A Q(1988). 32. R I R A(1998). 33. R A F C(1964).34. R N(1995).35. R O 17 NOVEMBER(1975).36.R P L A 37. S G C C(1992).38. S L 39.T Q J F B A R(2003).40. U S D F C(1997). THE ACTIVE TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS OF INDIA TRIPURA- 1.A T T F 2. N L F T 3. B N C T NAGALAND- 1. N S C N I M 2. N S C N K MIZORAM- 1.B N L F 2.H P K D MEGHALAY- 1.A N V C 2. H N L C 3. P L F M ASAM- 1.N D F B 2. U L F A 3. A D F 4. D H D 5. H P C D 6. K L O 7. M U L T A 8. U P D S MANIPORE- 1. K C P 2. K Y K L 3. M P L F 4. P L A 5.PRIPAK 6.U N L F 7. H P C D 8. K L A 9. K N A 10. K N F 11. K R A 12. N S C N I M 13.P U LF 14. U K L F 15. Z L A MAJOR NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS 30/9/1999- Tokaimura,north east of Tokyo,Japan. 26/4/1986- Chernobyl nuclear power plant near Kiev,USSR(now in Ukraine). 25/8/1981- Tsuruga,Japan. 11/2/1981- TVA’s Sequoyah 1 plant in Tennessee, U.S.A. 28/3/1979- Middletown,Pennsylvana. 22/3/1975- In Decatur,Alahama.U.S.A. 21/1/1969- Lucens Vad,Switzerland. 5/10/1966- Near Detroit, Michigan,U.S.A. 3/1/1961- INear Idaho Falls,Idaho,U.S.A. 7/10/1957- North of Liverpool,England. MYTHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS INDIAN- Abhimanyu- The heroic son of Arjuna(the 4th oh the Pandavas). Bharata- Son of Dasaratha. Drona- The teacher in archery of the Pandavas and Kauravas. Svaha- A doughter of Brihaspati. Visravas- Father of Ravana. ROMAN- Jupiter- Chief god & God of heaven. Juno- Chief goddess. Greek- Morpheus- God of dreams. Hestia- Goddess of flowers. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS French harp- Harmonica. Hawaiian guitar- Ukulele introduced by the Portuguese. Cello- Bass Violin. It is held between the player’s knees. Upright piano- Piano in which strings are vertical. Violin- Four stringed instrument played with a bow. ASIAN GAMES(1951-2002) Year Top 1951(N.Delhi) Japan/India/Iran 1954(Manila) Japan/Philippines/South Korea 1958(Tokyo) Japan/Philippines/South Korea 1962(Jakarta) Japan/Indonesia/India 1966(Bangkok) Japan/South Korea/Thailand 1970(Bangkok) Japan/South Korea/Philippines 1974(Tehran) Japan/Iran/China 1978(Bangkok) Japan/China/South Korea 1982(N.Delhi) China/Japan/South Korea 1986(Seoul) China/South Korea /Japan 1990(Beijing) China/South Korea /Japan 1994(Hiroshima) China/South Korea /Japan 1998(Bangkok) China/South Korea /Japan 2002(Busan) China/South Korea /Japan OLYMPICS(776BC-2004) Year Heald in 776BC Greece AD 394 Athens 1896 Athens 1900 Paris 1904 St.Louis 1908 London 1912 Stockholm 1920 Antwerp 1924 Paris 1928 Amsterdam 1932 Los Angeles 1936 Berlin 1948 London 1952 Helsinki 1956 Melbourne 1960 Rome 1964 Tokyo 1968 Mexico City 1972 Munich 1976 Montreal 1980 Moscow 1984 Los Angeles 1988 Seoul 1992 Bercelona 1996 Atlanta 2000 Sydney 2004 Athens 7 BOOKER PRIZES WINERS Name Takes Prize for P.H. Newby(1969) Something To Answer For V.S. Naipaul(1971) in A Free State John Berger(1972) G Salman Rushdie(1981) Midnight’s Children Anita Brookner(1084) Hotel Du Lac Arundhathi Roy(1997) The God Of Small Things Kiran Desai (2006) The Inheritance Of Loss INDIAN BEAUTY QUEENS MISS UNIVERSE Sushmita Sen(1994) Lara Dutta(2000) MISS WORLD Reita Faria(1966) Aishwarya Rai(1994) Diana Hayden(1997) Yukta Mookhey(1999) Priyanka Chopra(2000) PAST PROFESSIONS OF CELEBRITIES Aesop - Slave George Orwell - Policeman Gregor Mendel - Monk Jean Genet - Professional Criminal and Male Prostitute John Mills - Toilet Paper Salesman GYANPITH WINER BENGALIES Tara Shankar Banerjee(1966) Bishnu Dey(1971) Ashapurna Devi(1976) Subhas mukhopadhyay(1991) Mahasweta Devi(1996) BEST SPORTS MOVIES 1.Ranging Bull(1980) 2.Bull Durham(1988) 3.The Hustler(1961) 4.Searching for Babby Fischer(1993) 5.Frequency(2000) 6.Hoop Dreams(1994) 7.Horse Feathers(1932) 8.The Karate Kid(1984) 9.Rocky(1976) 10.Phorpa(The Cup)(1999) RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES* IN INDIA All Religions - 1,028,610,328 Hindus - 827,578,868 Muslims - 138,188,240 Christians - 24,080,016 Sikhs - 19,215,730 Buddhists - 7,955,207 Jains - 4,225,053 Others - 6,639,626 Religion not stated - 727,588 *2001Census WOMEN CHIEF MINISTERS IN INDIA Sucheta Kripalani - UP Nandini Satpaty - Orissa Sashikala Kadokar - Goa Syeda Anwara Taimur - Assam Janaki Ramachandran - TN Jayalalithaa - TN Mayawati - UP Rajinder Kaur Bhattal - Punjab Rabri Devi - Bihar Sushma Swaraj - Delhi Sheila Dixit - Delhi Uma Bharti - M.P. Vasundhara Raje Scindia - Rajasthan WOMEN GOVERNRS IN INDIA Sarojini Naidu - United Province/UP Padmaja Naidu - West Bengal Vijayalakshmi Pandit - Maharashtra Sharada Mukherjee- Andhra Pradesh,Gujarat Jyothi Venkatachalam - Kerala Kumudben Joshi - Andhra Pradesh Ram Dulari Sinha - Kerala Serla Grewal - Madhya Pradesh Chandrawati - Pondicherry(UT) Rajendrakumari Bajpayi - Pondicherry(UT) Sheila Kaul - Himachal Pradesh Justice M. Fatima Beevi - Tamilnadu Rama Devi - Himachal Pradesh,Karnataka Rajani Rai - Pondicherry(UT) OCEANS OF THE WORLD Pacific - 166,241,000sq km Atlantic - 86,557,000sq km Indian - 73,427,000sq km Arctic- 9,485,000sq km OCEAN’S GREATEST DEPTHS Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean - 1092m Puerto Rico Trench, Atlantic Ocean- 8605m Java Trench, Indian Ocean- 7125m Arctic Basin, Arctic Ocean- 5122m DRIEST INHABITED PLACESS RAINFALL:CM/YEAR Aswan,Egypt - 0.05 Luxor ,Egypt - 0.076 Arica Desert,Chile- 0.10 Ica,Peru -0.254 Antofagasta,Chile- 0.508 WETTEST INHABITED PLACESS RAINFALL:CM/YEAR Buenaventira,Colombia- 678 Monrovia,Liberia- 513 Pago Pago,American Samoa- 503 Moulein,Myanmar- 487 Lae,Papua New Guinea- 465 Baquio,Philippinese- 457 Sylhet,Bangladesh- 452 DEEPRST LAKES Baikal,Russian Fed - 1620m Tanganyika,Africa - 1463m Caspian Sea,Asia-Europe - 1025m Malawi or Nyasa,Africa - 706m Issyk-Kul,Kyrgyzstan - 702m DEEPRST CAVES Resseu du Foillis(France) - 1455m Resseu de la Pierre St.(France) - 1321m Snezhnaya,Caucassus(Russia) - 1280m Sistema Huatla(Mexico) - 1220m MAJOR SEAS South China - 2,974,600sq km Caribbean - 2,515,900sq km Mediterranean - 2,510,000sq km Bering- 2,261,100sq km Gulf of Mexico - 1,507,600sq km Sea of Okhotsk - 1,392,100sq km Sea of Japan or East Sea - 1,012,900sq km Hudson Bay- 730,100sq km East China - 664,600sq km Andaman - 564,900sq km Black - 507,900sq km Red- 453,000sq km HOTTEST,COLDEST,DRIEST,WETTEST Hottest Place - Dallol , Denakil Depression ,Ethiopia ,Annual average temp. 34.40C. Coldest Place - Plateau Station,Antartica,Annual average temp.-56.70C. Driest Place - Africa, Atacama Desert, Chile. Annual average rainfall 0.08cm. Wettest Place - Mawsynram,Meghalaya Annual average rainfall 1168cm. WELL KNOWN HORSES Name To whom it belonged Chetak Maharana Pratap Bucephalus Alexander the Great Incitatus Caligula, Roman emperor Marengo Napoleon,French emperor Marsala Garibaldi,Italian Patriot WELL KNOWN DOGS Name To whom it belonged Peritas Alexander the Great Blondie Hitler Chequers Richard Nixon Diamond Isaac Newton Nipper Fox terrier for His Master’s Voice MAJOR LAKES Caspian Sea - 371,000sq km Superior - 82,100sq km Victoria - 69,500sq km Huron - 59,600sq km Michigan - 57,800sq km Tanganyika - 32,900sq km Baikal - 31,500sq km Great Bear - 31,300sq km Aral Sea - 30,700sq km Malawi - 28,900sq km Great Slave - 28,568sq km Erie - 25,667sq km Winnipeq - 24,387sq km Ontario - 19,529sq km Balkhash - 18,300sq km NICKNAMES Father of Comedy - Aristophanes Father of Sunday Newspapers - John Bell Father of Greek Tragedy - Aeschylus Father of Angling - Izaac Walton Father of Railways - George Stephenson NAMES:OLD AND NEW New Names Old Names Beijing Peking Congo Zaire Ghana Gold Cost Hanoi Kecho Thailand Siam TOP FIVE INDIAN WORLD-BEATERS IN INDIVIDUAL SPORTS Prakash Padukone - All - England badminton championships winner (1980) (Pullela Gopichand repeated the feat in 2001). Jeev Milkha Singh - First Asian golfer to win in Europe(2006). Arjun Atwal - First Indian golfer to win an European tour event(2002). Milkha Singh - He missed the 400 metres bronze by a whisker at the Rome Olympics(1960). Wilson Jones,Michael Ferreira,Geet Sethi,Pankaj Advani - Winners of 17 world billiards and snooker titles (from 1958). FEW WOMEN RULERS Suhbaataryn Yanjmaa(Mongolia,1953-54) - Acting President. Indira Gandhi(India,1966-77,1980-84) - Prime Minister. Benazir Bhutto(Pakistan,1988-90,1993-96) - Prime Minister. Sheik Hasina(Bangladesh,1996) - Prime Minister. Yuliya Tymoshenko(Ukraine,2005) - Prime Minister. Maria do Carme Silveira(Sao Torne and Principe,2005) - Prime Minister. Cynthia A Pratt(Bahamas,2005) - Acting Prime Minister. Fausta Simona Morgani(San Marino,2005) - Co Captain Regent. Michaelle Jean(Canada,2005) - Governor General Angela Merkel(Germany,2005) - Chancellor. WORLD’S TALLEST TOWERS Canadian National Tower - 553m OstankinoTower - 537m Oriental Pearl Tower - 468m Milad Tower - 435m Menara Kuala Lumpur - 421m Central Radio & TV Tower - 405m Tianjin TV Tower - 415m Kiev TV Tower - 385m Tashkent Tower - 375m Liberation Tower - 372m Alma-Ata Tower - 371m Riga TV Tower - 368m Fernsehturm Tower - 368m Stratosphere Tower - 350m Macau Tower - 338m WORLD’S TALLEST BUILDINGS Taipei 101 - 509m Petronas Tower 1- 452m Petronas Tower 2 - 452m Sears Tower - 442m Jin Mao Building - 421m Two international Finance Center - 415m CITIC Plaza - 391m Shun Hing Square - 384m Empire State Building - 381m Central Plaza - 374m Bank of China - 369m EmiratesTower One - 355m Tuntex Sky Tower - 348m Aon Center - 346m The Center - 346m THE BEST CAREERS OF 2006 - Curriculum and instructional co-ordinators. - High- school special - education teachers. - Hospital and clinic managers. - Management consultants and analysts. - Medical researchers. - Physical therapists. - Sales,marketing and advertising managers. - Social workers,counsellors and related managers. BHARAT RATNA WINERS C. Rajagopalachari(1954). S. Radha krishnan(1954). C.V. Raman(1954). Jawaharlal Nehru(1955). Bhagwan Das(1955). M. Visweswariayya(1955). Govind Ballabh Pant(1957). D.K. Karve(1958). B.C.Roy(1961). P.D.Tandon(1961). Rajendra Prasad(1962). Zakir Hussain(1963). P.V. Kane(1963). Lal Bahadur Shastri(posthumous,1966). Indira Gandhi(1971). V.V. Giri(1975). K.Kamraj(posthumous,1976). Mother Teresa(1980). Vinoba Bhave(1983). ‘Frontier Gandhi’Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan(1987). M.G.Ramachandran(posthumous,1988). Dr.B.R.Ambedkar(1990). Dr.Nelson Mandela(1990). Rajiv Gandhi(posthumous,1991). Sardar Vallabhai Patel(posthumous,1991). Morarjee Desai(1991). J.R.D. Tata,Satyajit Roy(posthumous,1992). Gulzarilal Nanda(1997). A P J Abdul Kalam , M.S. Subbalakshmi , C. Subramaniam , Jaiprakash Narayan(posthumous,1998). Amartya Sen , Ravi Shankar , Gopinath Bordoloi(posthumous,1999). Ustad Bismilla Khan ,Lata Mankeshkar(2001). AMERICAN ENGLISH British English American English Bag Sack Biscuit Cookie By-law Ordinance Car-boot Trunk Jam Jelly OSCAR WINING PICTURES 1928 - Wings,Paramount.1929 - The Broadway Melody , MGM.1930 - All Quiet on the Western Front ,Universal.1931 - Cimarron.1932 - Grand Hotel , MGM.1933 - Cavalcade , Fox.1934 - It Happened One Night , Columbia.1935 - Mutiny on the Bounty ,MGM.1936 - The Great Ziegfeld , MGM.1937 - The Life of Emile Zola , Warner.1938 - You Can’t Take It with You , Columbia.1939 - Gone with the Wind , Selznick ,MGM.1940 - Rebecca, Sleznick - United Artists.1941 - How Green Was My Valley ,20th Century-Fox.1942 - Mrs. Miniver ,MGM.1943 - Casablanca,Warner Bros.1944 - Going My Way, Paramount.1945 - The Lost Weekend,Paramount.1946 - The Best Years of Our Lives,Goldwyn RKO Radio.1947 - Gentleman’s Agreement,20th Century-Fox.1948 -Hamlet,Rank-Two Cities-UI.1949 - All the King’s Men,Rossen-Columbia.1950 - All About Eve,20th Century-Fox.1951 - An American in Paris ,MGM.1952 - The Greatest Show on Earth, Demille Paramount.1953 - From Here to Elemity,Columbia.1954 - On the Waterfront , Horizon-American Crop , Columbia.1955 - Marty, Hecht and Lancaster ,United Artists.1956 - Around the World in 80 Days,Michael Todd Co. , Inc - United Artists.1957 - The Bridge on the River Kwai , Horizon Films,Columbia.1958 - Gigi , Arthur Freed Productions , Inc. , MGM.1959 - Ben - Hur , MGM.1960 - The Apartment,Mirisch Co.,Inc - United Artists.1961 - West Side Story , Mirisch ,Pictures,Inc.,and B and P Enterprises,Inc.,United Artists.1962 - Lawrence of Arabia,Horizon Pictures,.1963 - Tom Jones,A Woodfall Production,United Artists - Lopert Pictures.1964 - My Fair Lady, Warner Bros.1965 - The Sound of Music,Argyle, Enterprises Production , 20th Century-Fox.1966 - A Man for All Seasons, Highland Films, Ltd., Production ,Columbia.1967 - In the Heat of the Night, Mirisch Crop.Production ,United Artists.1968 - Oliver , Columbia Pictures.1969 - Midnight Cowboy, Jerome Hellman John Schlesinger Production ,United Artists.1970 - Patton , Frank McCarty-Franklin J. Schaffner Production ,20th Century-Fox.1971 - The French Connection , D’Antoni , 20th Century-Fox .1972 - The Godfather , Albert S. Production , Paramount.1973 - The Sting, Universal-Bill/ Phillips -George Roy Hill Production, Universal.1974 - The Godfather , Part II,Coppola Co.Production, Paramount.1975 - One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest,Fantasy Films Production, United Artists.1976 - Rocky, Robert Chartoff-Irwin Winkler Production, United Artists.1977 - Annie Hall,ack Rollins-Charles H. Joffe Production ,United Artists.1978 - The Deer Hunter,Michael Climino Film Production, Universal.1979 - Kramer vs Kramer,Stanley laffe Production , Columbia Pictures.1980 - Ordinary People,Wildwood Enterprises Production , Paramount.1981 - Chariots of Fire,Enigma Productions,ladd Company/Warner Bros.1982 - Gandhi , Indo - British Films Production / Columbia.1983 - Terms of Endearment ,Paramount.1984 - Amadeus,Orion.1985 - Out of Africa,Universal.1986 - Platoon,Orion.1987 - The Last Emperor,Pictures.1988 - Rain Man ,United Artists .1989 - Driving Miss Daisy, Warner Bros.1990- Dances With Wolves,Orion.1991 - The Silence of the Lambs,Orion.1992 - Unforgiven ,Warner Bros.1993 - Schindler’s List, Universal.1994 - Forrest Gump,Paramount.1995 - Braveheart ,Paramount.1996 - The English Patient,Miramax.1997 - Titanic, 20th Century-Fox.1998 - Shkespeare in Love,Miramax.1999 - American Beauty, Dream Works SKG.2000 - Gladiator, Dream Works and Universal.2001 - A Beautiful Mind , Brian Grazer and Ron Howard , producer.2002 - Chicago,Martin Richards ,producer.2003 - The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. 8 GOVERNORS OF RBI Sir Osborne Smith - 1/4/1935 - 30/6/1937. Sir C.D. Deshmukh - 11/8/1943 - 30/6/1949. K.G. Ambegaonkar - 14/1/1957 - 28/2/1957. P.C. Bhattacharya - 1/3/1962 - 30/6/1967. M.Narasimham - 2/5/1977 - 30/11/1977. A.Ghosh - 15/1/1985 - 4/2/1985. Dr. C. Rangarajan - 22/12/1992 - 21/11/1997. Dr. Bimal Jalan - 22/11/1997 - 6/9/2003. FAMOUS WATERFALLS Angel(Venezuela,807m), Mongefossen(Norway,774m), Kukenaam (Venezuela,610m), Utigard (Norway,600m), Ribbon (USA,491m), King George VI (Guyana,487m), Roraima (Guyana,457m), Upper Yosemite (USA,435m), Kalambo (Tanzania- Zambia,426m), Gavarnie (France,421m), Tugela (S.Africa,410m), Takakkaw (Canada,365m). LARGEST ISLANDS Australia (7682300sq km), Greenland (2175600sq km), New Guinea (792500sq km), Borneo(725545sq km), Malagasy Rep.(587000), Baffin Island (476065sq km), Sumatra (427300sq km), Honshu (227400sq km), Great Britain (218041sq km),Victoria Island(217300sq km),Eliesmere Island (196236sq km),Celebes (189035sq km). PRINCIPAL PEAKS Mt. Everest (8848m), Everest South Summit (8750m),K2(Mt. Godwin) (8611m), Kanchenjunga (8598m), Dhaulagiri (8167m), Nanga Parbat (8126m), Annapurna (8091m),Nanda Devi (7817m), Mt. Kamet (7756m), Saltoro Kangri (7742m). LONGEST RIVERS Nile (6650km), Amazon (6437km), Mississippi-Missouri (6020km), Yangtze Kiang (5494km),Ob-Irtysh (5410km), Zaire (4700km), Lena (4400km),Hwang Ho (4344km), Mackenzie (4241km), Mekong (4180km),Niger (4180km), St.Lawrence (4023km), Parana (4000km), Yenisey (3804km),Murray - Darling (3780km), Volga(3690km), Zambezi(3540km), Maderia (3218km), Purus (3200km), Youkon - Teslin (3185km), Rio Grande(3040km), Indus (2900km), Brahmaputra (2900km), Danube (2850km), Amur (28240km), Salween (2815km), Shatt al - Arab (2740km), Si (2650km), Orinoco (2575km), Nelson (2570km). LARGEST DESERTS SUBTROPICAL Sahara - 9,064,650sq km. Arabian- 2,589,900sq km. Great Victoria- 647,475sq km. Kalahari- 582,727sq km. Chihuahuan- 453,232sq km. Thar- 453,232sq Great Sandy- 388,485sq km. Gibson- 310,788sq km. Sonoran- 310,788sq km. Simpson- 145,034sq km. Mohave- 139,854sq km. COOL COASTAL Atacame - 139,854sq km. Namib - 33,668sq km. COLD WINTER Gobi - 1,294,950sq km. Patagonian - 673,374sq km. Great Basin - 492,081sq km. Kara-Kum - 349,636sq km. Colorado - 336,687sq km. Kyzyl-Kum - 297,838sq km. Taklamakan - 271,939sq km. Iranian - 258,990sq km. VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS Mt.Vesuvius - 79AD. Kelet - 1586. Mt. Unzen - 1792. Tambora - 1815. Krakatoa - 1883. Mt. Pelee - 1902. Mt. St Helens - 1980 El Chichon - 1982. Nevado del Ruiz - 1985. Lake Nyos - 1986. Mt. Mt Pinatubo - 1991. SOLAR STATISTICS Distance from the Earth - 149.8milion km. Absolute Visual Magnitude - 4.75. Diameter - 1,384,000km. Core Temperature - 15 000 000k. Photosphere Temperature - 5770k. Rotation as seen from the Earth - (at the Equator) 25.38days. (near the poles) 33days. Chemical Composition - Hydrogen 710/0 . Helium 26.50/0 . Other Elements 2.50/0 . Age - About 4.5bilion years. Expected lifetime of a normal star - About 10 bilion years. EARTH DATA Surface area - 510 100 500 sq km. Land surface - 148 950 800sq km. Ocean surface- 361 149 700sq km. Total water area - 382 672 000sq km. Type of water - 970/0 =salt & 3 0/0 = fresh. Equatorial circumference - 40 066 km. Polar circumference - 39 992 km. Equatorial diameter - 12 753 km. Polar diameter - 12 710 km. Equatorial radius - 6376 km. Polar radius - 6355 km. Mass (estimated weight) - 5940000000000000000000 metric tons. Mean distance from the Sun - 149 407 000 km. Earth’s Orbit Speed (around Sun) - 107 320 kmph. Period of Revolution(round the Sun) - 365 days 5 hrs. 48 min. 45.51sec. Time of Rotation(on its own axis) - 23 hrs. 56 min. 4.09sec. Inclination of the axis - 66030’. Speed of Rockets - 8km/sec approx. Escape Velocity - 11km/sec. SWARNA KAMAL WINNER BENGALI FILMS 1955 - Pather Panchali. 1956 - Kabuliwala. 1958 - Sagar Sangame. 1959 - Apur Sansar. 1961 - Bhagini Nivedita. 1962 - Dada Thakur. 1964 - Charulata. 1967 - Hatey Bazarey. 1968 - Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne. 1971 - Seemabaddha. 1974 - Chorus. 1980 - Akaler Sandhane. 1981 - Dakhal. 1982 - Chokh. 1991 - Agantuk. 1993 - Charachar. 1994 - Unishe April. 1996 - Lal Darja. 2002 - Mondo Meyer Upakhyan. 4 PRESIDENTS OF USA George Washington - 1789-1797. George H.W. Bush - 1989-1993. William J. Clinton - 1993-2001. George W. Bush - 2001-. 4 BRITISH PRIME MINISTERS Robert Walpole - 1721-1742. Margaret Thatcher - 1979-1990. John Major - 1990- 1997. Tony Blair - 1997. 20 INVENTIONS Acetylene gas(1862) - Berthelot(French). Adding Machine(1642) - Pascal(French). Yoga(200-100BC) - Patanjali(India). Sidhayoga(C,750) - Vrdukunta(India). Western Scientific Therapy(460-370BC) - Hippocrates(Greece). Ayurveda(2000-1000BC) - Atreya(India). Ashtanga Hridaya(C. 550AD) - Vagbhata(India). Sex hormones(1910) - Eugen Steinach(Austria). Terramycin(1950) - Finlay & Others(USA). Use of artificial heart(for surgery)(1963) - Michael de Bakey(Britian). Vaccine , polio - oral (1960) - Albert Sabin(USA). Small Pox eradicated(1980) - W.H.O. Declaration(UN). Vaccine ,meningitis (1987) - Gordon,et al. Connaught Lab.(USA). Aspirin(1889) - Dreser(Germany). Anesthesia, spinal (1898) - Bier (Germany). Anatomia(1316) - Mondino(Italy). Blood Bank(1940) - Drew(USA). Pacemaker(1952) - Zoll(USA). Seat belt(1959) - Volvo(Sweden). Post-it-note(1980) - 3M(Asia Minor).
Aug, 18 '08 Subject: G.K., Viewed by: 2348
G.K. MITHUGHOSHAL(M.A.) DEATH ON CRICKET FIELD -(1942 - 2006) Andy Ducat - Andy Ducat died of a heart attack while batting in a club match at Lord’s in July 1942. Abdul Aziz - Abdul Aziz died during the final of the Quaid - e - Azam Trophy in 1958-59 between Karachi and Services. Wilf Slack - Wilf Slack, the Middlesex and England left - handed opener collapsed and died at the age of 34 while batting in Banjul,capital of The Gambia, in January 1989. Raman Lamba - Raman Lamba died at the age of 38 after being hit on the head while fielding at forward short - leg during a club match in Dhaka in February 1998. Wasim Raja - Wasim Raja died with his boots on -- playing in an over 50 compettition in Surrey-- on 23 August,2006. THE RECORDS OF MOHUN BAGAN V EAST BENGAL (2004 - 2006) Sept.11,2004 - EB 0 Bagan 0 Oct. 8,2004 - Bagan 8 (1) EB 7(1) tie-breaker Nov.10,2004 - EB 2 Bagan 1 Jan.22,2005 - EB 0 Bagan 0 April 24,2005 - EB 1 Bagan 0 Aug.18,2005 - Bagan 1 EB 0 Sept. 3,2005 - Bagan 1 EB 0 Nov.27,2005 - EB 4 Bagan1 Jan.22,2006 - EB 0 Bagan 0 April 8,2006 - EB 3 Bagan 1 Aug.26,2006 - Bagan 1 EB 0 Sept.26,2006 - Bagan 1 EB 0 Mohan Bagan and East Bengal have played 140 matches in kolkata League, of which East Bengal have won 46. Mohan Bagan 39 while 55ended in a draw. SAF GAMES(10th) FINAL TALLY Team Gold Silver Bronze India - 118 69 47 Pakistan - 43 44 71 Sri Lanka - 37 63 78 Nepal - 9 14 31 Afghanistan -6 7 18 Bangladesh - 3 15 32 Maldivest - 0 0 0 NATIONS OF THE WORLD (1)Afghanistan Capital - Kabul. Area - 647,497sq.km. Languages - Pushtu, Persian. Religions - Sunny Muslim840/0 ,Shia Muslim 150/0,Others10/0. Currency - Afghani. Date of Independence - 19/8/1919. (2)Albania Capital - Tirana. Area - 28,748sq.km. Languages - Albanian,Greek. Religions - Islam700/0 ,Albanian Orthodox 200/0,Roman Catholic 100/0. Currency - Lek. Date of Independence - 28/11/1912. (3) Algeria Capital - Algiers. Area - 2,381,741sq.km. Languages - Arabic,Berber, French. Religions - Islam990/0 ,Christan and Jewish 10/0. Currency - Dinar. Date of Independence - 5/71962. (4)Andorra Capital - Andorre-la-Vieille. Area - 464 sq.km. Languages - Catalan,French,Castilan. Religions - Predominantly Roman Catholic. Currency - Franc and Andorran Peseta . (5)Angola Capital - Luanda. Area - 1,246,699 sq.km. Languages - Portugues,Bantu. Religions - Indigenous beliefs 470/0 ,Roman Catholic38 0/0 ,Protestant 150/0 . Currency - Readjusted Kwanza. Date of Independence - 11/11/1975 (6)Antigua and Barbuda Capital - St. John’s. Area - 442sq.km. Languages - English and Patois. Religions - Predominantly Protestant, some Roman Catholic. Currency - East Caribbean Dollar. Date of Independence - 1/11/1981. (7) Argentina Capital - Buenos Aires. Area - 2,766,654sq.km. Languages - Spanish, Italian. Religions - Roman Catholic920/0 , Protestant 2 0/0, Jewish 2 0/0, Others40/0. Currency - Peso. Date of Independence - 9/7/1816 (8)Armenia Capital - Yerevan. Area - 29,800sq.km. Languages - Armenian. Religions - Armenian Apostlic 940/0, Other Christan 40/0, Yezidi 20/0. Currency - The dram. Date of Independence - 21/9/1991. (9) Australia Capital - Canberra. Area - 7,682,300sq.km. Languages - English and aboriginal languages. Religions - Anglican 26.1 0/0, Roman Catholic 260/0, Other Christan 24.3 0/0, Non Christan 110/0, Others12.60/0, . Currency - Australian Dollar. Date of Independence - 1/1/1901. (10) Austria Capital - Vienna. Area - 83,858sq.km. Languages - German. Religions - Roman Catholic74 0/0 ,Protestant 50/0 ,Islam 40/0 , Others 170/0. Currency - Schilling. Date of Independence - 1156. (11) Azerbaijan Capital - Baku. Area - 86,600sq.km. Languages - Azeri,Turkish,Russian. Religions - Islam 94.30/0 ,Armenian Orthodox 2.30/0,Russian Orthodox 2.50/0, Others 1.80/0. Currency - Manat. Date of Independence - 30/8/1991. (12) The Bahamas Capital - Nassau. Area - l3,939sq.km. Languages - English,Creole . Religions - Baptist 320/0, Anglican 200/0, Roman Catholic190/0. Currency - Bahamian Dollar. Date of Independence - 10/7/1973. (13)Bahrain Capital - Manama. Area - 669sq.km. Languages - Arabic, English,Farsi,Urdu. Religions - Sunny Muslim 300/0 ,Shia Muslim 700/0. Currency - Bahraini Dinar. Date of Independence - 15/8/1971. (14)Bangladesh Capital - Dhaka. Area - l48,393sq.km. Languages - Bangla,Chakma,Magh. Religions -Islam 830/0 ,Hindu160/0, Others 10/0. Currency - Taka. Date of Independence - 16/12/1971. (15) Barbados Capital - Bridgetown. Area - 430sq.km. Languages - English . Religions - Roman Catholic 40/0 , Protestant 67 0/0, None 17 0/0, Others120/0. Currency - Barbados Dollar. Date of Independence - 30/11/1966. (16)Belarus Capital - Minsk. Area - 207,600sq.km. Languages - Belorussian, Russian. Religions - Eastern Orthodox 800/0, Others 200/0.Currency - Ruble. Date of Independence - 25/8 / 1991. (17) Belgium Capital - Brussels. Area - 30.52lsq.km. Languages - Flemish, French, German - all official. Religions - Roman Catholic 750/0 , Protestant and Others250/0. Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 4/10 / 1830. (18)Belize Capital - Belmopan. Area - 22,965sq.km. Languages - English, Spanish,Creole dialects . Religions - Roman Catholic 49.60/0 , Protestant 27 0/0, None 9.4 0/0, Others140/0. Currency - Belize Dollar. Date of Independence - 21/ 9/ 1981. (19)Benin Capital - Porto Novo. Area - l12,622 sq.km. Languages - French and Tribal dialects like Fon ,Yoruba. Religions - Indigenous beliefs 50 0/0 , Christan 30 0/0 , Muslim 200/0 . Currency - Franc. Date of Independence - 1/8 / 1960. (20)Bhutan Capital - Thimphu. Area - 46,500sq.km. Languages - Dzongkha , Lhotsam (Nepali), English. Religions - Buddhist 750/0 , Hindu and Nepalese25 0/0 .Currency - Nagultrum,fixed par with Indian Rupee which is also legal tender. Date of Independence - 8/ 8/ 1949. (21)Bolivia Capital - La Paz (administrative) and Sucre(judicial). Area - l,098,581sq.km. Languages - Spanish,Quechua and Aymara. Religions - Roman Catholic 950/0 , Protestant 5 0/0 . Currency - The Boliviano. Date of Independence - 6/ 8/ 1825. (22)Bosnia - Herzegovina Capital - Sarajevo. Area - 5l,129sq.km. Languages - Serbocroatian. Religions - Muslim 400/0, Orthodox 310/0, Roman Catholic 150/0 , Others140/0. Currency - Conv.Mark. Date of Independence - 1/3 / 1992. (23)Botswana Capital - Gaborone. Area - 58l,730sq.km. Languages - English,Setswana and Sishona. Religions - tribal beliefs85 0/0,Christan15 0/0, . Currency - Pula. Date of Independence - 30/9 / 1966. (24)Brazil Capital - Brasilia. Area - 8 , 51l ,965 sq.km. Languages - Portuguese(official), Spanish , English , French. Religions - Roman Catholic (nominal) 800/0 . Currency - Real. Date of Independence - 7/9 / 1822. (25)Brunei Capital - Bander Seri Begawan. Area - 5,765sq.km. Languages - Malay,English,Chinese. Religions - Muslim 670/0, Buddhist 130/0 ,Christan 10 0/0 , Indigenous beliefs and others100/0. Currency -Brunei Dollar. Date of Independence - 1/1 / 1984. (26)Bulgeria Capital - Sofia. Area - l10,912sq.km. Languages - Bulgerian,Turkish. Religions - Bulgerian Orthodox82.6 0/0,Muslim 12.20/0, Others5.2 0/0. Currency - Lev. Date of Independence - 3/ 3/ 1878. (27)Burkina Faso Capital - Ouagadougou. Area - 274,200sq.km. Languages - French and Sudanic tribal languages. Religions - Tribal beliefs 400/0,Muslim 500/0, Christan 10 0/0. Currency -Franc CFA. Date of Independence - 5/ 8/ 1960. (28)Burundi Capital - Bujumbura. Area - 27,834sq.km. Languages -French and Kirundi. Religions - Roman Catholic 620/0 , Indigenous beliefs 23 0/0 ,Muslim 100/0, Protestant 5 0/0 . Currency - Burundi Franc. Date of Independence - 1/7 / 1962. (29)Cambodia Capital - Phnom-penh. Area - 181,035sq.km. Languages - Khmer,French . Religions - Theravada Buddhist 950/0 ,Others5 0/0. Currency -Riel . Date of Independence - 9/ 11/ 1953. (30)Cameroon Capital - Yaounde. Area - 475,442sq.km. Languages - French and English. Religions - Indigenous beliefs 40 0/0 , Christan 40 0/0,Muslim 200/0 . Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 1/ 1/ 1960. (31)Canada Capital - Ottawa. Area - 9,976,139sq.km. Languages - English, French . Religions - Roman Catholic 460/0 , Protestant 36 0/0, Others180/0. Currency - Dollar. Date of Independence - 1/ 7/ 1867. (32)Cape Verde Capital - Praja. Area - 4033sq.km. Languages - Portuguese,Crioulo. Religions - Roman Catholic , Protestant . Currency - Escudo. Date of Independence - 5/7 / 1975. (33)Cen. African Republic Capital - Bangui. Area - 622,984sq.km. Languages - French and Sangho. Religions - Muslim, Christan, Indigenous beliefs . Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 13/8 / 1960. (34)Chad Capital - N’djamena. Area - 1,284,000sq.km. Languages - French, Arabic and 100 tribal languages. Religions - Muslim 510/0 , Christan 35 0/0, Animist 70/0, Others70/0. Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence -11/8 / 1960. (35)Chile Capital - Santiago. Area - 756,626sq.km. Languages - Spanish. Religions -Roman Catholic 89 0/0, Protestant 110/0 . Currency -peso. Date of Independence - 18/9 / 1810. (36)China Capital - Bijing. Area - 9,561,000sq.km. Languages - Chinese(Mandarin),other local languages. Religions - Officially Atheist,Buddhism,Taoism,Muslim. Currency -Rnminbi(Yuan). Date of Independence - 1/1 / 1912. (37)Colombia Capital - Bogota. Area - 1,139,000sq.km. Languages - Spanish. Religions - Roman Catholic 90 0/0 . Currency - Peso. Date of Independence - 20/7 / 1810. (38)The Comoros Capital - Moroni. Area - 1862sq.km. Languages - Arabic and Comoran. Religions - Muslim98 0/0,Roman Catholic 20/0, . Currency - Comorian Franc. Date of Independence - 6/7 / 1975. (39)Congo,D.R. of(Formerly Zaire) Capital - Kinshasa. Area - 2,344,885sq.km. Languages - French, Kiswahili, Lingala,other African languages. Religions - Muslim, Christan,Kimbanguist,Others. Currency - Congolese Franc. Date of Independence - 30/6 / 1960. (40)Congo Capital - Brazzaville. Area - 342,000sq.km. Languages -French, Lingala,Congo,Teke. Religions - Muslim, Christan,Animist . Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 15/8 / 1960. (41)Costa Rica Capital - San Jose. Area - 51,110sq.km. Languages - Spanish. Religions - Christan,Others,None. Currency - Colon. Date of Independence - 15/ 9/ 1821. (42)Cote D’Ivoire Capital - Yamoussoukro. Area - 322,462sq.km. Languages - French,Tribal . Religions - Muslim, Christan,Others. Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 7/8 / 1960. (43)Croatia Capital - Zagreb. Area - 56,538sq.km. Languages - Serbo Croation. Religions - Orthodox, Muslim, Christan,Others,Unknown . Currency - Kuna. Date of Independence - 25/ 6/ 1991. (44)Cuba Capital - Havana. Area - 110,922sq.km. Languages -Spanish. . Religions - Roman Catholic ETC. Currency - Peso. Date of Independence - 20/5 / 1902. (45)Cyprus Capital - Nicosia. Area - 9,251sq.km. Languages - Greek,Turkish,English. Religions - Greek Orthodox, Muslim,Maronite,Armenian Apstolic,Others . Currency - Cyprus Pound. Date of Independence - 16/8 / 1960. (46)Turkish Cyprus Capital - Nicosia. Area - 3355sq.km. Languages - Turkish. . Currency - Turkish Lira. (47)Czech Republic Capital - Prague. Area - 78,864sq.km. Languages - Czech. Religions - Protestant4.6 0/0,Roman Catholic39.20/0,Orthodox30/0,Atheist39.80/0,Others13.40/0 .Currency - The Koruna. Date of Independence - 1/ 1/ 1993. (48)Denmark Capital - Copenhagen. Area - 43,074sq.km. Languages - Danish. Religions - Muslim, Christan . Currency - Danish Krone. (49)DJibouti Capital - DJibouti. Area - 21,783sq.km. Languages - French,Arabic,Affar, Issa. Religions - Muslim, Christan. Currency - DJibouti Franc. Date of Independence - 27/ 6/ 1977. (50)Dominica Capital - Roseau. Area - 750sq.km. Languages - English, French Patois. Religions - Roman Catholic77 0/0,Protestant150/0,None20/0,Others60/0 . Currency - East Caribbean Dollar. Date of Independence - 3/ 11/ 1978. (51)Dominican Republic Capital - Santo Domingo. Area - 48,442sq.km. Languages - Spanish. Religions -Roman Catholic95 0/0 . Currency - Peso. Date of Independence - 27/2 / 1844. (52)East Timor Capital - Dili. Area - 14,874sq.km. Languages - Tetum,Portuguese(official), English, Bahasa Indonesian . Religions - Muslim, Christan, Hindu, Buddhist,Animist. Currency - US Dollar and Indonesian Rupiah. Date of Independence - 20/ 5/ 2002. (53)Ecuador Capital - Quito. Area - 283,561sq.km. Languages - Spanish,Quechuan , tribal dialects. Religions - Roman Catholic95 0/0 . Currency - US Dollar and Sucre. Date of Independence - 24/ 5/ 1822. (54)Egypt Capital - Cairo. Area - 997,677sq.km. Languages - Arabic,English. Religions - Muslim94 0/0,Coptic Christan,others60/0, . Currency - Egyptian Pound. Date of Independence - 28/2 / 1922. (55)El Salvador Capital - San Salvador. Area - 21,393sq.km. Languages - Spanish. Religions - Roman Catholic830/0 . Currency - Colon. Date of Independence - 15/ 9/ 1821. (56)Equatorial Guinea Capital - Malabo. Area - 28,051sq.km. Languages - Spanish, Fang, Bubi, pidgin English. Religions - Christan. Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 12/10 / 1968. (57)Eritrea Capital - Asmara. Area - 117,600sq.km. Languages - Tigrinya Arabic, several other local languages. Religions - Muslim, Christan. Currency - Nafka. Date of Independence - 24/5 / 1993. (58)Estonia Capital - Tallinn. Area - 45,100sq.km. Languages - Estonian. Religions - Russian Orthodox,Estonian Orthodox,Jewish,Seventh-Day Adventist,Roman Catholic,Methodist,Baptist,Pentecostal,World of Life . Currency - Kroon. Date of Independence - 20/ 8/ 1991. (59)Ethiopia Capital - Addis Ababa. Area - 1,221,900sq.km. Languages - Amharic,Oromiga , Tigrigna ,60 other small languages. Religions - Muslim,Ethiopian Orthodox,Animist ,others. Currency - Birr. Date of Independence - 810. (60)Fiji Capital - Suva. Area - 18,376sq.km. Languages - English, Fijian, Hindi. Religions - Muslim, Christan, Hindu, others . Currency - Dollar. Date of Independence - 2/ 10/ 1970. (61)Finland Capital - Helsinki. Area - 338,000sq.km. Languages - Finnish ,Swedish. Religions - Russian Orthodox,Evangelical Lutheran ,None,Others. Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 6/ 12/ 1917. (62)France Capital - Paris. Area - 543,965sq.km. Languages -French , regional dialects. Religions - Muslim,Jewish,Christan,Unaffiliated. Currency -Euro. Date of Independence - 486. (63)Gabon Capital - Libreville. Area - 267,667sq.km. Languages - French , Bantu dialects. Religions - Muslim,Animist,,Christan ,Indigenous beliefs . Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 17/ 8/ 1960. (64)The Gambia Capital - Banjul. Area - 11,295sq.km. Languages - English , Mandinka. Religions - Muslim,Christan ,Indigenous beliefs. Currency - Dalasi. Date of Independence - 18/ 2/ 1965. (65)Georgia Capital - Tbilisi. Area - 69,700sq.km. Languages - Georgian , Russian. Religions - Georgian Orthodox65 0/0 , Russian Orthodox10 0/0,Muslim11 0/0,Armenian Apostolic80/0,Unkwon60/0 . Currency - The Lari. Date of Independence - 9/ 4/ 1991. (66)Germany Capital - Berlin. Area - 357,020sq.km. Languages - German. Religions - Muslim ,Christan ,others . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 3/ 10/ 1990. (67)Ghana Capital - Accra. Area - 238,537sq.km. Languages - English (official), 8 major national languages. Religions -Muslim16 0/0,Christan630/0 ,Indigenous beliefs210/0 . Currency - Cedi. Date of Independence - 6/3 / 1957. (68)Greece Capital - Athens. Area - 131,990sq.km. Languages -Greek . Religions -Greek Orthodox98 0/0. Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 1829. (69)Grenada Capital - St. George’s. Area - 344sq.km. Languages - English , French-African patois. Religions - Roman Catholic53 0/0,Protestant33.20/0,Anglican 13.80/0 . Currency - East Caribbean Dollar. Date of Independence - 7/ 2/ 1974. (70)Guatemala Capital - Guatemala City. Area - 14,655,189sq.km. Languages - Spanish and Indian dialects. Religions - ,Christan ,Indigenous Mayan beliefs. Currency - Quetzal. Date of Independence - 15/ 9/ 1821. (71)Guinea Capital - Conakry. Area - 245,857sq.km. Languages - French , 8 national languages. Religions -Muslim85 0/0,Christan80/0 ,Indigenous beliefs70/0 . Currency - Franc. Date of Independence - 2/10 / 1958. (72)Guinea-Bissau Capital - Bissau. Area - 36,125sq.km. Languages - Crioulo,Portuguese,Tribal languages. Religions - Muslim45 0/0,Christan50/0 ,Indigenous beliefs 500/0. Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 24/ 9/ 1973. (73)Guyana Capital - Georgetown. Area - 214,969sq.km. Languages - English , Hindi,Urdu,Creole. Religions - Muslim, Christan, Hindu, others . Currency - Guyana Dollar. Date of Independence - 26/ 5/ 1966. (74)Haiti Capital - Port-au-Prince. Area - 27,750sq.km. Languages - French(official),Creole. Religions - Roman Catholic80 0/0,Protestant160/0,None10/0,others30/0 . Currency - Gourde. Date of Independence - 1/1 / 1804. (75)Honduras Capital - Tequcigalpa. Area - 112,088sq.km. Languages - Spanish and some Indian dialects. Religions - Roman Catholic97 0/0,Protestant . Currency - Lempira. Date of Independence - 15/9/ 1821. (76)Hungary Capital - Budapest. Area - 93,033sq.km. Languages - Hungarian(Magyar). Religions -Roman Catholic67. 5 0/0, Lutheran 50/0,Calvinist20 0/0, Atheist ,others7.50/0 . Currency - Forint. Date of Independence - 1001. (77)Iceland Capital - Reykjavik. Area - 102,846sq.km. Languages - Icelandic. Religions - Evangelical Lutheran 87.1 0/0,other Protestant4.10/0, . Currency - Krona. Date of Independence - 17/6 / 1944. (78)India Capital - New Delhi. Area - 3,287,263sq.km. Languages - Hindi(official),English , officialy 18 recognised languages. Religions - Hindu81.3 0/0,Muslim120/0,Christan 2.30/0 ,Sikh 1.9 0/0Buddhist,Jain,ParsiETC2.5 0/0. Currency -Rupee. Date of Independence - 15/ 8/ 1947. (79)Indonesia Capital - Jakarta. Area - 1,904,569sq.km. Languages - Bahasa Indonesian , Dutch , English , Javanese, other Austro-nesian languages. Religions - Buddhist,Muslim, Christan, Hindu, others . Currency - Rupiah. Date of Independence - 17/ 8/ 1945. (80)Iran Capital - Teheran. Area - 1,648,000sq.km. Languages -Persian(Farsi),Turk, Kurdish, Arabic. Religions -Muslim99 0/0, Zoroastrian,Jewish,Christan,Baha10/0 . Currency - Rial. Date of Independence - 1/4 / 1979. (81)Iraq Capital - Baghdad. Area - 438,446sq.km. Languages - Arabic(official),Kurdish. Religions - Muslim97 0/0 ,Christan ,others30/0. Currency - Iraqi Dinar. Date of Independence - 3/10 / 1932. (82)Ireland Capital - Dublin. Area - 70,282sq.km. Languages - Irish,English. Religions - Roman Catholic91.6 0/0,Church of Ireland10/0, others5.90/0. Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 6/12 / 1921. (83)Israel Capital - Jerusalem. Area - 20,772sq.km. Languages - Hebrew(official),Arabic. Religions - Sunny Muslim14.6 0/0,Jewish80.1 0/0 ,Christan2.10/0 ,others3.20/0. Currency - New Shekel. Date of Independence - 14/5 / 1948. (84)Itali Capital - Rome. Area - 301,278sq.km. Languages - Italian. Religions - Roman Catholic . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 17/ 3/ 1861. (85)Jamaica Capital - Kingston. Area - 11,425sq.km. Languages - English, Jamaican. Religions - Roman Catholic40/0, Protestant61.3 0/0,others34.70/0. Currency - Dollar. Date of Independence - 6/8 / 1962. (86)Japan Capital - Tokyo. Area - 377,765sq.km. Languages - Japanese. Religions - Shinto and Buddhism84 0/0,Others160/0, . Currency -Yen. Date of Independence - 660B.C. (87)Jordan Capital - Amman. Area - 89,287sq.km. Languages - Arabic, English. Religions - Sunny Muslim92 0/0,Christan60/0,others20/0 . Currency - Dinar. Date of Independence - 25/ 5/ 1946. (88)Kazakhstan Capital - Astana. Area - 2,717,300sq.km. Languages - Kazakh , Russian ,German. Religions - Russian Orthodox44 0/0,Muslim470/0,Protestant2 0/0,others70/0 . Currency - Tenge. Date of Independence - 16/12 / 1991. (89)Kenya Capital - Nairobi. Area - 582,646sq.km. Languages - Kiswahili , English , Kikuyu , several other languages. Religions - Protestant45 0/0,Roman Catholic330/0 ,Indigenous beliefs100/0 . Currency - Shilling. Date of Independence - 12/12 / 1963. (90)Kiribati Capital - Tarawa. Area - 861sq.km. Languages - Gilbertese,English. Religions - Roman Catholic52 0/0,Protestant400/0. Currency - Australian Dollar. Date of Independence - 12/ 7/ 1979. (91)Korea(North) Capital - Pyongyang. Area - 120,538sq.km. Languages - Korean. Religions - Traditionally Buddhist,Christan,Confucianist,Syncretic Chondogyo . Currency - Won. Date of Independence - 15/ 8/ 1945. (92)Korea(South) Capital - Seoul. Area - 98,859sq.km. Languages - Korean. Religions - Buddhist47 0/0,Christan490/0,Confucianist30/0,others10/0 . Currency - Won. Date of Independence - 15/ 8/ 1945. (93)Kuwait Capital - Kuwait City. Area - 17,818sq.km. Languages -Arabic, English. Religions - Islam. Currency - Kuwait Dinar. Date of Independence - 19/6 / 1961. (94)Kirghyzstan Capital - Bishkek. Area - 198,500sq.km. Languages - Kirghyz, Russian. Religions - Russian Orthodox20 0/0,Muslim750/0,others50/0 . Currency - Som. Date of Independence - 31/8 / 1991. (95)Laos Capital - Vientiane. Area - 236,800sq.km. Languages - Lao, Tribal , English, French. Religions - Buddhist60 0/0,Animist and others400/0, . Currency - Kip. Date of Independence - 19/7 / 1949. (96)Latvia Capital - Riga. Area - 63,700sq.km. Languages - Latvian,Lithuanian,Russian. Religions - Roman Catholic,Russian Orthodox,Lutheran . Currency - Lat. Date of Independence - 21/ 8/ 1991. (97)Lebanon Capital - Beirut. Area - 10,400sq.km. Languages - Arabic, French, English. Religions - Muslim70 0/0,Christan,Jewish300/0 . Currency - Pound. Date of Independence - 22/ 11/ 1943. (98)Lesotho Capital - Maseru. Area - 30,355sq.km. Languages - English,Sesotho. Religions -Christan800/0, Indigenous beliefs200/0 , . Currency - Loti. Date of Independence - 4/ 10/ 1966. (99)Liberia Capital - Monrovia. Area - 111,369sq.km. Languages - English,Tribal dialects. Religions - Muslim20 0/0,Christan400/0, Indigenous beliefs400/0 . Currency - Liberian Dollar. Date of Independence - 26/7 / 1847. (100)Libya Capital - Tripoli. Area - 1,759,540sq.km. Languages - Arabic. Religions - Sunny Muslim97 0/0, . Currency - Libyan Dinar. Date of Independence - 24/12 / 1951. (101)Lechtenstein Capital - Vaduz. Area - 160sq.km. Languages - German. Religions - Roman Catholic76.2 0/0,Protestant70/0,Unknwon10.60/0,others6.20/0 . Currency - Swiss Frank. Date of Independence - 23/ 1/ 1719. (102)Lithuania Capital - Vilnius(Vilna). Area - 65,200sq.km. Languages - Lithuanian. Religions - Roman Catholic(primarily), Russian Orthodox,Lutheran ,Evangelical Christan Baptist, Protestant,Muslim,Jewish . Currency - Litas. Date of Independence - 11/3 / 1990. (103)Luxembourg Capital - Luxembourg. Area - 2586sq.km. Languages - French, German, English, Luxembourgish . Religions - Roman Catholic87 0/0,Protestant , Jews, Muslim13 0/0. Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 1839. (104)Macedonia Capital - Skopje. Area - 587,341sq.km. Languages - Macedonian. Religions - Macedonian Orthodox70 0/0,Muslim290/0,others10/0 . Currency - Denar. Date of Independence - 8/ 9/ 1991. (105)Madagascar Capital - Antananarivo. Area - 118,784sq.km. Languages - Malagasy,French. Religions -Muslim7 0/0,Christan410/0, Indigenous beliefs520/0 . Currency - Malagasy Franc. Date of Independence - 26/6 / 1960. (106)Malawi Capital - Lilongwe. Area - sq.km. Languages - English , Chichewa ,Lomwe , Yao. Religions - Protestant55 0/0,Roman Catholic200/0,Muslim20 0/0, Indigenous beliefs 3.0/0,others20/0 . Currency - Kwacha. Date of Independence - 6/7 / 1964. (107)Malaysia Capital - Kuala Lumpur. Area - 330,434sq.km. Languages - Malay,English, Chinese, Tamil . Religions - Buddhist,Muslim, Hindu,Daoist,Christan,Sikh . Currency - Ringgit. Date of Independence - 31/8 / 1957. (108)Maldives Capital - Male. Area - 298sq.km. Languages - Divehi (Sinhalese dialect). Religions - Sunny Muslim . Currency - Rufiya. Date of Independence - 26/ 7/ 1965. (109)Mali Capital - Bamako. Area - 1,240,192sq.km. Languages - French(official),Bambara, other African languages. Religions -Muslim90 0/0,Christan10/0 ,Indigenous beliefs90/0 . Currency -CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 22/9 / 1960. (110)Malta Capital - Valletta. Area - 316sq.km. Languages - Maltese,English. Religions - Roman Catholic980/0 . Currency - Lira. Date of Independence - 21/ 9/ 1964. (111)Marshall Islands Capital - Dalap-Uliga-Darrit. Area - 181sq.km. Languages - Marshallese,English, other indigenous languages and Japanese. Religions - Christan . Currency - Dollar. Date of Independence - 21/10 / 1986. (112)Mauritania Capital - Nouakchott. Area - 1,030,700sq.km. Languages - Arabic, French, Hassanya Arabic, Wolof, Pulaar,Soninke. Religions - Muslim1000/0 . Currency - Ouguiya. Date of Independence - 28/11/1960. (113)Mauritius Capital - Port Louis. Area - 2040sq.km. Languages - English,French,Creole , Hindustani. Religions - Muslim16.6 0/0,Christan28.3 0/0, Hindu52 0/0,others3.10/0 . Currency - Rupee. Date of Independence - 12/3/1968. (114)Mexico Capital - Mexico City. Area - 1,972,547sq.km. Languages -Spanish, Amerindian languages. Religions - Roman Catholic89 0/0,Protestant60/0,others50/0 . Currency - New Peso. Date of Independence - 24/ 9/ 1821. (115)Micronesia Capital - Palikir. Area - 702sq.km. Languages - English ,local languages. Religions - Roman Catholic50 0/0,Protestant470/0 . Currency - US Dollar. Date of Independence - 3/ 11/ 1986. (116)Moldova Capital - Chisinau. Area - 33,700sq.km. Languages -Romanian, Ukrainian. Religions - Eastern Orthodox98 0/0,Jewish150/0,Baptist ,others0.50/0 . Currency - The Leu. Date of Independence - 27/ 8/ 1991. (117)Monaco Capital - Monaco. Area - 1.95sq.km. Languages - French, Monegasque,Italian. Religions - Roman Catholic90 0/0 . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 1419. (118)Mongolia Capital - Ulan Bator. Area - 1,565,000sq.km. Languages - Mongolian. Religions - Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism96 0/0,Muslim,Shamanism,Christan40/0 . Currency - Tugrik. Date of Independence - 11/ 7/ 19. (119)Morocco Capital - Rabat. Area - 458,730sq.km. Languages - Arabic,Berber. Religions - Muslim98.7 0/0,Christan1.10/0,Jewish0.20/0 . Currency - Dirham. Date of Independence - 2/ 6/ 1956. (120)Mozambique Capital - Maputo. Area - 783,030sq.km. Languages - Portuguese,Bantu. Religions - Muslim20 0/0,Christan300/0,Indigenous beliefs500/0. Currency - Metical. Date of Independence - 25/ 6/ 1975. (121)Myanmar Capital - Yangon. Area - 676,553sq.km. Languages - Burmese , Karen, Shan. Religions - Buddhist89 0/0,Muslim4 0/0,Christan40/0 ,Animist 10/0 ,others20/0 . Currency - Kyat. Date of Independence - 4/ 1/ 1948. (122)Namibia Capital - Windhoek. Area - 826,700sq.km. Languages - English , Afrikaans, German, several indiguenous languages. Religions - Christan80-900/0 ,Indigenous beliefs10-200/0. Currency - Dollar. Date of Independence - 21/ 3/ 1990. (123)Nauru Capital -Yaren district. Area - 21.1sq.km. Languages - English,Nauruan. Religions - Christan . Currency - Australian Dollar. Date of Independence - 31/ 1/ 1968. (124)Nepal Capital -Kathmandu. Area - 147,181sq.km. Languages - Nepali, Maithir, Bhojpuri. Religions - Buddhist7.8 0/0,Muslim3.8 0/0, Hindu86.20/0. Currency - Nepalese Rupee. Date of Independence - 1768. (125)The Netherlands Capital - Amsterdam. Area - 41,160sq.km. Languages - Dutch. Religions - Roman Catholic31 0/0,Protestant210/0 ,Muslim4.4 0/0,others3.60/0 ,Unaffiliated400/0, . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 1579. (126)New Zealand Capital - Wellington. Area - 269,057sq.km. Languages - English,Maori dialect. Religions - Roman Catholic15 0/0,other Protestant30/0, Anglican 24 0/0, Presbyterian 18 0/0,Methodist 5 0/0,Baptist 2 0/0,None33 0/0. Currency - New Zealand Dollar. Date of Independence - 26/9 / 1907. (127)Nicaragua Capital - Managua. Area - 130,000sq.km. Languages - Spanish,English. Religions - Roman Catholic85 0/0,Protestant . Currency - Gold Cordoba. Date of Independence - 15/ 9/ 1821. (128)Niger Capital - Niamey. Area - 1,267,000sq.km. Languages -French,Hausa,Djerma. Religions - Muslim80 0/0,Christan, Indigenous beliefs . Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 3/8 / 1960. (129)Nigeria Capital - Abuja. Area - 923,768sq.km. Languages - English,Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba. Religions -Muslim50 0/0,Christan400/0, Indigenous beliefs. Currency - Naira. Date of Independence - 1/10/1960. (130)Norway Capital - Oslo. Area - 323,895sq.km. Languages - Norwegian. Religions - Evangelical Lutheran,Roman Catholic,other Protestant . Currency - Krone. Date of Independence - 7/6 / 1905. (131)Oman Capital - Muscat. Area - 300,000sq.km. Languages - Arabic. Religions -Muslim, Hindu . Currency - Rial Omani. Date of Independence - 1650. (132)Pakistan Capital - Islamabad. Area - 796,095sq.km. Languages - Urdu(Official),Punjabi, Sindhi, Pushtu, Baluchi,English. Religions - Muslim97 0/0,Christan, Hindu,others30/0 . Currency - Rupees. Date of Independence - 14/8 / 1947. (133)Palau Capital - Koror. Area - 1,632sq.km. Languages - Palauan,English and other languages. Religions -Christan,Modekngei religion . Currency - US Dollar. Date of Independence - 1/ 10/ 1994. (134)Palestine Currency - Israeli currency. (135)Panama Capital - Panama City. Area - 77,082sq.km. Languages - Spanish,English. Religions - Roman Catholic85 0/0, Protestant150/0, . Currency - Balboa. Date of Independence - 3/11 / 1903. (136)Papua New Guinea Capital - Port Moresby. Area - 462,840sq.km. Languages - English,Melanesian, papuan languages. Religions - Roman Catholic22 0/0,other Protestant100/0, Anglican 5 0/0,Seventh-Day Adventist10/0,Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society80/0,Lutheran160/0,Evangelical Alliance40/0,. Currency - Kina. Date of Independence - 16/ 9/ 1975. (137)Paraguay Capital - Asuncion. Area - 406,752sq.km. Languages - Spanish,Guarani. Religions -Roman Catholic90 0/0,Mennonite,other Protestant . Currency - Guarani. Date of Independence - 14/5 / 1811. (138)Peru Capital - Lima. Area - 1,281,215sq.km. Languages - Spanish,Quechua. Religions - Roman Catholic90 0/0 . Cur0rency - New Sol. Date of Independence - 28/7 / 1821. (139)The Philippines Capital - Manila. Area - 299,404sq.km. Languages - Filipino,English,Spanish. Religions - Roman Catholic83 0/0,Protestant90/0 ,Muslim5 0/0,Buddhist ,others30/0 . Currency - Peso. Date of Independence - 12/6 / 1978. (140)Poland Capital - Warsaw. Area - 312,677sq.km. Languages - Polish. Religions - Roman Catholic95 0/0 ,Eastern Orthodox,Protestant,others50/0 . Currency - Zloty. Date of Independence - 11/11 / 1918. (141)Portugual Capital - Lisbon. Area - 92,072sq.km. Languages - Portuguese. Religions - Roman Catholic94 0/0,Protestant . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 1143. (142)Qatar Capital - Doha. Area - 11,437sq.km. Languages - Arabic ,English. Religions - Muslim950/0, . Currency - Riyal. Date of Independence - 3/9 / 1971. (143)Romania Capital - Bucharest. Area - 237,500sq.km. Languages - Romanian, Hungarian, German. Religions - Eastern Orthodox870/0, Catholic5.6 0/0,Protestant6.80/0 ,others0.40/0,Unaffiliated0.20/0. Currency - Leu. Date of Independence - 9/5 / 1877. (144)Russia Capital - Moscow. Area - 17,075,000sq.km. Languages - Russian, Ukrainian, Belarussian, Uzbek, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and others. Religions - Russian Orthodox,Muslim,Others . Currency -Rouble. Date of Independence - 24/8 / 1991. (145)Rwanda Capital - Kigali. Area - 26,338sq.km. Languages - French,Kinyarwanda,Swahili. Religions - Roman Catholic56.5 0/0,Adventist11.1 0/0,Muslim4.6 0/0,Protestant260/0 ,Indigenous beliefs0.1 0/0.None1.70/0, . Currency - Franc. Date of Independence - 1/7 / 1962. (146)Samoa(formerly Western Samoa) Capital - Apia. Area - 2835sq.km. Languages - Samoan,English. Religions - Christan99.7 0/0. Currency - Tala. Date of Independence - 1/ 1/ 1962. (147)San Marino Capital - San Marino. Area - 61sq.km. Languages - Italian. Religions - Roman Catholic . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 3/9/ 301. (148)Sahrawi Arab Demo.Rep.(S.AD.R.) Capital - El- Alaiun. Area - 266,769sq.km. Languages - Arabic. Religions - Islam. (149)Sao Tome & Principe Capital - Sao Tome. Area - 964sq.km. Languages - Portuguese,native dialects like - Fang. Religions - Christan800/0 . Currency - Dobra. Date of Independence - 12/7 / 1975. (150)Saudi Arabia Capital - Riyadh(Royal)and Jeddah. Area - 2,250,070sq.km. Languages - Arabic. Religions - Muslim100 0/0 . Currency - Riel(SAR). Date of Independence - 23/9 / 1932. (151)Senegal Capital - Dakar. Area - 196,162sq.km. Languages - French,Wolof, other native tongues. Religions - Muslim94 0/0,Christan50/0,Indigenous beliefs10/0 . Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 4/4/1960. (152)Serbia & Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia) Capital - Belgrade. Area - 102,173sq.km. Languages - Serbo-Croatian(official), Albanian. Religions - Orthodox6.5 0/0,Roman Catholic40/0,Muslim19 0/0, Protestant10/0 ,others110/0. Currency - New Dinar. Date of Independence - 27/4/1992. (153)Seychelles Capital - Victoria. Area - 308sq.km. Languages - Creole,English, French. Religions - Anglican 6.8 0/0,Roman Catholic86.6 0/0,other Christan2.50/0,others4. 10/0 . Currency - Rupee. Date of Independence - 29/ 6/ 1976. (154)Sierra Leone Capital - Freetown. Area - 71,740sq.km. Languages - English , tribal. Religions -Muslim60 0/0,Christan100/0,Indigenous beliefs300/0 . Currency - Leone. Date of Independence - 27/4/1961. (155)Singapore Capital - Singapore city. Area - 616.3sq.km. Languages - Malay, Chinese, Tamil , English. Religions - Buddhist ,Muslim ,Christan , Hindu, Sikh,Taoist, Confucianist . Currency - Singapore Dollar. Date of Independence - 9/ 8/ 1965. (156)Slovakia Capital - Bratislava. Area - 49,036sq.km. Languages - Slovak , Magyar. Religions - Roman Catholic60.3 0/0,Atheist9.70/0,Protestant8.40/0 ,Orthodox4.1 0/0,others17.50/0 . Currency - Koruna(Crown). Date of Independence - 1/1/ 1993. (157)Slovenia Capital - Ljubljana. Area - 20,251sq.km. Languages - Slovenian. Religions - Roman Catholic70.8 0/0,Lutheran1 0/0,Muslim1 0/0,Atheist4.30/0,others22.90/0 . Currency - Tolar. Date of Independence - 25/6/ 1991. (158)Solomon Islands Capital - Honiara. Area - 29,758sq.km. Languages - English, Pidgin English, local languages. Religions -Anglican 45 0/0,Roman Catholic180/0,United 120/0, Baptist9 0/0,Seventh-Day Adventist70/0,other Protestant50/0 ,Indigenous beliefs4 0/0. Currency - Dollar. Date of Independence - 7/7/ 1978. (159) Somalia Capital - Mogadishu. Area - 637,657sq.km. Languages - Somali , Arabic ,English, Italian. Religions - Sunny Muslim. Currency - Shilling. Date of Independence - 1/7/ 1960. (160)South Africa Capital - Pretoria. Area - 1,223,201sq.km. Languages - Afrikaans, English and 9 other languages. Religions - Muslim2 0/0,Christan680/0, Hindu 1.50/0,Indigenous beliefs,Animist280/0, . Currency - Rand. Date of Independence - 31/5/ 1910. (161)Spain Capital - Madrid . Area - 504,750sq.km. Languages - Spanish , Catalan ,Basque , Galician . Religions - Roman Catholic94 0/0,others60/0 . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 1492. (162)Sri Lanka Capital - Colombo. Area - 65,610sq.km. Languages - Sinhala , Tamil , English. Religions - Buddhist70 0/0,Muslim7 0/0,Christan80/0, Hindu 150/0 . Currency - Rupee. Date of Independence - 4/ 2/ 1948. (163)St. Kitts-Nevis Capital - Bassseterre. Area - 269sq.km. Languages - English , Patois. Religions - Anglican ,other Protestant, Roman Catholic. Currency - East Caribbean Dollar. Date of Independence - 19/9/1983. (164)St.Lucia Capital - Castries. Area - 616sq.km. Languages - English , French Patois. Religions - Roman Catholic90 0/0,Anglican 3 0/0,other Protestant70/0 . Currency - East Caribbean Dollar. Date of Independence - 22/2 / 1979. (165)St. Vincent & The Grenadines Capital - Kingstown. Area - 388sq.km. Languages - English , French Patois. Religions - Anglican 47 0/0,Methodist28 0/0 ,Roman Catholic130/0, Hindu,Seventh-Day Adventist,other Protestant. Currency - East Caribbean Dollar. Date of Independence - 27/ 10/ 1979. (166)Sudan Capital - Khartoum. Area - 2,505,813sq.km. Languages - English, Dinka, Nubian, etc. Religions - Sunny Muslim70 0/0,Indigenous beliefs 25 0/0 ,Christan50/0 . Currency - Dinar. Date of Independence - 1/1/ 1956. (167)Suriname Capital - Paramaribo. Area - 163,820sq.km. Languages - Dutch , English , Hindi , Sranantongo . Religions -Hindu 27.40/0,Muslim19.6 0/0,Roman Catholic22.80/0, Protestant25.20/0,Indigenous beliefs 5 0/0 . Currency - Gulden/Suriname Guilder. Date of Independence - 25/ 11/ 1975. (168)Swaziland Capital - Mbabane. Area - 17,363sq.km. Languages - English , Swazi . Religions - Zionist40 0/0,Roman Catholic 200/0,Muslim10 0/0 . Currency - Lilageni. Date of Independence - 6/9 / 1968. (169)Sweden Capital - Stockholm. Area - 449,793sq.km. Languages - Swedish. Religions - Lutheran87 0/0,Roman Catholic, Orthodox,Baptist, Muslim,Jewish,Buddhist. Currency - Krona. Date of Independence - 6/6 / 1523. (170)Switzerland Capital - Berne. Area - 41,293sq.km. Languages - German , French , Italian, Romansch. Religions - Roman Catholic 46.1 0/0,Protestant400/0,others50/0 ,none8.90/0 . Currency - Franc. Date of Independence - 1/8/ 1291. (171)Syria Capital - Damasucs. Area - 185,180sq.km. Languages - Arabic ,Kurdish Armenian . Religions - Muslim,Christan,Jewish . Currency - Syrian Pound. Date of Independence - 17/4/1946. (172)Taiwan Capital - Taipei. Area - 35,981sq.km. Languages - Mandarin Chinese ,Taiwan , Hakka dialects . Religions - Buddhist,Confucian,Taoist93 0/0,Christan50/0, . Currency - New Taiwan Dollar. (173)Tajikistan Capital - Dushanbe. Area - 143,100sq.km. Languages - Tadzhik , Russian. Religions - Sunny Muslim 850/0 ,Shia Muslim 50/0 . Currency - Tajik Ruble. Date of Independence - 9/9/ 1991. (174)Tanzania Capital - Dodoma. Area - 945,087sq.km. Languages - Kiswahili , English. Religions - Mainland Christan30 0/0,Muslim35 0/0,Indigenous beliefs 35 0/0 . Currency - Shilling. Date of Independence - 26/4/1964. (175)Thailand Capital - Bangkok. Area - 513,115sq.km. Languages - Thai , Lao , Chinese , English, Malay. Religions - Buddhist95 0/0,Muslim3.8 0/0,Christan0.50/0, Hindu 0.10/0,others0.60/0. Currency - Baht. Date of Independence - 1238. (176)Togo Capital - Lome. Area - 56,785sq.km. Languages -French and Tribal languages. Religions - Indigenous beliefs 51 0/0,Christan290/0,Muslim98 0/0 . Currency - CFA Franc. Date of Independence - 27/4/1960. (177)Tonga Capital - Nuku’alofa. Area - 748sq.km. Languages - English,Tongan. Religions - Christan . Currency - Paanga. Date of Independence - 4/6 / 1970. (178)Trinidad and Tobago Capital - Port-of-Spain. Area - 5128sq.km. Languages -English. Religions - Roman Catholic 29.4 0/0, Hindu 23.80/0,Anglican 10.9 0/0,Muslim5.8 0/0,Presbyterian 3.4 0/0, others26.70/0. Currency - Tri & Tob Dollar. Date of Independence - 31/8 / 1962. (179)Tunisia Capital - Tunis. Area - 7,310sq.km. Languages - Arabic, French. Religions - Muslim98 0/0,Christan10/0, Jewish,others10/0. Currency - Dinar. Date of Independence - 20/3 / 1956. (180)Turkey Capital - Ankara. Area - 779,452sq.km. Languages - Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic. Religions - Muslim99.8 0/0, others0.20/0 . Currency - Turkish Lira. Date of Independence - 29/10 / 1923. (181)Turkmenistan Capital - Ashkhabad(Poltoratsk). Area - 488,100sq.km. Languages - Turkmen,Russian. Religions - Muslim89 0/0,Eastern Orthodox90/0, unknown20/0, . Currency - Manat. Date of Independence - 27/10 / 1991. (182) Tuvalu Capital - Funafuti. Area - 26sq.km. Languages - Tuvaluan,English. Religions - Church of Tuvalu97 0/0,Seventh-Day Adventist1.40/0,Bahai10/0,others0.60/0 . Currency - Australian Dollar. Date of Independence - 1/10 / 1978. (183)Uganda Capital - Kampala. Area - 241,139sq.km. Languages - English, Luganda, Entebbe. Religions - Roman Catholic 33 0/0,Protestant33 0/0,Muslim160/0,Indigenous beliefs 180/0. Currency - Uganda Shilling. Date of Independence - 9/ 10/ 1962. (184) The Ukraine Capital - Kiev. Area - 603,700sq.km. Languages - Ukrainian,Russian. Religions - Ukrainian Orthodox,Moscow Patriarchate,Kiev Patriarchate,Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian Catholic,Protestant,Jewish. Currency - Hryvnia. Date of Independence - 24/8 / 1991. (185)United Arab Emirates Capital - Abu Dhabi. Area - 82,880sq.km. Languages - Arabic. Religions - Muslim96 0/0,Christan, Hindu,others40/0 . Currency - Dirham. Date of Independence - 2/12 / 1971. (186)United Kingdom Capital - London. Area - 244,108sq.km. Languages - English, Welsh, Scottish, Gaelic. Religions - Anglican ,Roman Catholic,Muslim,PresbyterianMethodist, Sikh, Hindu, Jew, . Currency - Pound Sterling. Date of Independence - 1284. (187)United States of America Capital - Washington. Area - 9,372,614sq.km. Languages - English. Religions - Protestant56 0/0,Roman Catholic 280/0,Jewish20/0,others40/0 ,none100/0 . Currency - Dollar. Date of Independence - 4/ 7/ 1776. (188)Uruguay Capital - Montevideo. Area - 176,215sq.km. Languages - Spanish. Religions - Roman Catholic 66 0/0,Protestant20/0,Jewish10/0,others310/0 . Currency - Peso. Date of Independence - 25/8 / 1825. (189)Uzbekistan Capital - Tashkent. Area - 447,400sq.km. Languages - Uzbek,Russian. Religions - Muslim88 0/0,Eastern Orthodox90/0, others30/0 . Currency - Som. Date of Independence - 1/ 9/ 1991. (190)Vanuatu Capital - Vila. Area - 14,760sq.km. Languages - English, French, Bislama. Religions - Presbyterian 36.70/0,Roman Catholic 15 0/0,Indigenous beliefs ,7.60/0,Seventh-Day Adventist 6.20/0,Church of Christ 3.80/0,others15.70/0 . Currency - Vatu. Date of Independence - 30/ 7/ 1980. (191)Vatican City Capital - Vatican City. Area - 0.4sq.km. Languages - Latin, Italian. Religions - Roman Catholic . Currency - Euro. Date of Independence - 11/2 / 1929. (192)Venezuela Capital - Caracas. Area - 912,050sq.km. Languages - Spanish. Religions - Roman Catholic 96 0/0, Protestant20/0,others10/0 . Currency - Bolivar. Date of Independence - 5/7 / 1811. (193)Vietnam Capital - Hanoi. Area - 329,566sq.km. Languages - Vietnamese, French, English, Chinese. Religions - Buddhist,Hoa,Hao,Christan , Indigenous beliefs , Muslim . Currency - Dong. Date of Independence - 2/9 / 1945. (194)Yemen Capital - Aden. Area - 531,000sq.km. Languages - Arabic. Religions - Muslim ,Jew,Christan and Hindu . Currency - Rial. Date of Independence - 22/5 / 1990. (195)Zambia Capital - Lusaka. Area - 752,620sq.km. Languages - Bantu and English. Religions - Christia50-75 0/0, Muslim and Hindu 24-490/0, Indigenous beliefs10/0, . Currency - Kwacha. Date of Independence - 24/10 / 1964. (196)Zimbabwe Capital - Harare. Area - 390,272sq.km. Languages - English, Shona, Ndebla. Religions - Syncretic50 0/0,Christan 250/0, Indigenous beliefs 24 0/0 , Muslim and others10/0 . Currency - Dollar(ZWD). Date of Independence - 18/4 / 1980.